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CVPR: CV Unit I > CV Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in CV Anatomy Deck (20):
1

Functions of CV system (4)

-distribute gases/nutrients
-remove metabolic waste
-help maintain homeostasis (control temp, oxygen supply, pH, ionic composition, nutrient supply)
-adapt to changing conditions and metabolic demands

2

Major components of CV system (3)

-heart
-blood
-vasculature

3

Arrangement of circulation via R&L sides of heart (& implications)

-R --> pulmonary circulation
-L --> systemic circulation
-R & L sides of heart are arranged in series, but without any direct connection between them
-output of each side must be closely matched

4

Arrangement of systemic circulation (& implications)

-organ systems are arranged in parallel
-oxygenated blood visits one organ system before returning to heart
-changes in blood flow to one organ doesn't significantly affect other organs

5

Layers of walls of heart

-epicardium=outer layer, connective tissue and fat
-myocardium=middle layer, muscle tissue
-endocardium=inner layer, endothelial cells

6

Pericardium definition

fluid-filled membranous sac that surrounds the heart

7

Characteristics of ventricles

-main pumping chambers of heart
-thicker walls than atria
-L > R b/c supplies high pressure blood to systemic circulation

8

Characteristics of atria

-"primer" chambers
-supply ventricles w/blood
-thinner walls than ventricles

9

Major vessels entering/leaving heart

-vena cava (into R atrium)
-pulmonary artery (out of R ventricle)
-pulmonary vein (into L atrium)
-aorta (out of L ventricle)

10

Major valves of the heart

-tricuspid (btwn R atrium/R ventricle)
-pulmonary (btwn R ventricle/pulmonary artery)
-mitral (btwn L atrium/L ventricle)
-aortic (btwn L ventricle/aorta)

11

Blood flow through heart

systemic circulation --> vena cava --> R atrium --> tricuspid valve --> R ventricle --> pulmonary valve --> pulmonary artery --> lungs --> pulmonary vein --> L atrium --> mitral valve --> L ventricle --> aortic valve --> aorta --> systemic circulation

12

Major types of blood vessels (7)

-aorta
-arteries
-arterioles
-capillaries
-venules
-veins
-lymphatic

13

Major components of vascular system

-arterial system=distribution
-microcirculation=diffusion and filtration
-venous system=collection

14

Artery characteristics

-thick-walled, resist expansion
- ~3mm
-distribute blood

15

Arteriole characteristics

-relatively thick walls (w/smooth muscle)
- ~35 micom
-innervated by autonomic nerves, circulating hormones, and local metabolites
-primary site of regulation of vascular resistance

16

Capillary characteristics

-single layer of epithelial cells (endothelium) surrounded by basement membrane
-same size as RBCs
-huge total SA
-site of gas/nutrient exchange

17

Venule/Vein characteristics

-thin walls relative to diameter, not much elasticity
-primary capacitance vessels (contain most of blood volume)
-one-way valves ensure flow in correct direction

18

Major layers of blood vessels

-tunica adventitia=outer layer, connective tissue (collagen, elastin)
-tunica media=middle layer, innervated vascular smooth muscle (not present in capillaries)
-tunica intima=inner layer, endothelium

19

Microcirculation definition

vasculature from first-order arterioles --> venules

20

Lymphatic system function

filter/regulate excess interstitial fluid