Cytokines etc for Immunology Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Cytokines etc for Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cytokines etc for Immunology Deck (47):
1

TNF-alpha [Function, source]

Function: pro-inflammatory
- enhance adaptive immunity
- active endothelial cells [inflammation, coagulation]
- activate neutrophils
- fever [systemic effects of acute phase response]

Source: macrophages, T cells

2

IL-1 [B] [Function, source]

Function: pro-inflammatory
- fuel acute inflammation
- fever [systemic effects of acute phase response]
- enhance adaptive immunity
- active endothelial [ inflammation/coagulation]
- in liver: synthesis acute phase proteins
- catabolism --> cachexia
Source: macrophages, endothelial cells

3

Nitric oxide [Function, source]

Function
- aid in killing of microbes
Source: macrophages

4

IFN-gamma [Function, source]

Function
1. NK cells release to activate macrophage to kill phagocytosed microbe
2. membrane attack complex activation
Source: NK cells, Th1 cells

5

C3a [Function]

Function
1. activate inflammatory cells
2. recruit phagocytosis by macrophages
3. chemoattraction
4. activate macrophages to make cytokines

6

C3b [Function]

Function
1. opsonization of pathogens
2. phagocytosis of immune complexes

7

C5a [Function]

Function
1. mediator of Inflammation
2. recruit phagocytosis by macrophages
3. chemoattraction
4. activate macrophages to make cytokines

8

IL-12 [Function, source]

Function
1. increase cytotoxic activity of NK and T cells
2. increase IFN-gamma production NK/T cells
3. Induce Th1 differentiation
4. membrane attack complex activation
5. involved in macrophage activation [indirecrly via IFN gamma]
Source: dendritic, macrophages

9

Type 1 IFNs [IFN-a, IFN-B] [Function, source]

Function = primary barrier to viral infection
1. increase class I MHC expression in all cells
2. activate NK cells
Source: a- dendritic, macrophages; b- fibroblasts

10

IL-10 [Function, source]

Function
1. inhibit IL-12 production
2. reduced expression costimulators
3. reduce expression MHC II molecules
Source: macrophages, dendritic, T cells

11

IL-6 [Function, source]

Function: Pro-inflammatory
1. in liver: synthesis of acute phase proteins
2. activate B cell proliferation
3. induces Th17 differentiation [along with TGFB]
Source: macrophages, endothelial cells, T cells

12

IL-15 [Function, source]

Function
1. activate NK cell proliferation
2. activate T cell proliferation
Source: macrophages

13

Il-18 [Function, source]

Function
1. activate NK and T cells to produce IFN-gamma
Source: macrophages

14

Membrane attack complex [what makes it up, function]

C5b - C9
- lysis of pathogens and cells

15

C1q inhibitor [C1qINH] [function/mech]

regulate complement by:
- blocking classical pathway initiation

16

Factor H [Function/mech]

regulate complement by:
- inactivating C3 and C4 convertases
- works with factor I and membrane cofactor protein
- protects from complement activation in exposed basement membrane [kidney, eye]

17

CD55 (Decay Accelerating Factor) [Function/mech]

regulate complement by:
- accelerating decay of C3 convertase on cell surface

18

CD59 (Protectin) [Function/mech]

regulate complement by:
- Blocking membrane attack complex formation by blocking C9

19

What is mech of factor B and D?

- bind C3b on cell surface
- amplify downstream complement

20

What 3 cofactors work together to degrade C3B? Into what?

- Factor I, membrane cofactor protein, factor H
- don't get amplification of C3b signal instead get iC3b that is an opsinin

21

what is function of membrane cofactor protein?

inhibits C3 convertase

22

What is DM? What type of MHC? T cell? Function?

- intracellular protein involved in peptide presentation
- MHC Class II
- CD4
- promotes dissociation CLIP [placeholder peptide] rom MHC II to allow to bind antigen

23

What is TAP? What type of MHC? T Cell? Which path of antigen processing?

- transporter protein associated with antigen processing
- MHC class I
- CD8 T Cell
- endogenous pathway

24

What main cytokine does NK cell secrete? What other cytokine released by macrophages activates this secretion?

- NK makes IFN-gamma
- in response to IL-12 released by macrophages

25

What complement pathways involve C4?

- classical
- mannose-binding lectin

26

How is complement a bridge to adaptive immunity? [2 mech]

- C3b binds Cr1/2 on B cell and lowers activation threshold and enhances Ab production
- upregulations co-stimulation molecules

27

What is function RAG1 and 2?

- VDJ recombinase enzymes
- generate diversity in b/t cell development

28

What is CD3? Function? Where expressed?

- expressed on T cells
- stabilized TCR and leads to signalling downstream of activated TCR

29

Th1 [What induces it, what cytokines it expresses, function]

- induced by IL-2, IL-12
- secretes IFN-g --> activates macrophages to promote degradation ingested pathogens
- work against bacteria
- helps B cells make complement fixing antibodies, respiratory burst, macrophages

30

Th2 [What induces it, what cytokines it expresses, function]

- induced by Il-4, Il-5, Il-9, IL-3
- secretes IL-4 and IL-5, Il-10
- promotes B cell production antibodies [IgE]
- work in allergy/against helminth, anti-parasitic

31

Th17 [What induces it, what cytokines it expresses, function]

- induced by IL-6 and TGF-B
- secretes IL-17
- activates/recruits neutrophils + macrophages
- may play role in autoimmune

32

T regs [2 types, what cytokines it expresses, function]

- FoxP3 cells and TRs that secrete IL-10, TGF-B
- suppresses surrounding immune response
- may play role in suppressing autoimmunity [IBD]

33

TGF-B [function, source]

1. Induces Th17 differentation along with IL-6
2. regulatory cytokine secreted by T regs
source: T regs

34

IL-4 [function, source]

function
1. induce class switching to IgE
source: TH2 CD4 cells

35

Il-5 [function, source]

function
1. recruit/activate eosinophils [which bring histamine
source: TH2 CD4 cells

36

IL-17 [function, source]

function
source: TH17 CD4 cells

37

Two costimulatory signals [which molec on T cell vs pAPC, activated vs naive T cell]

- CD28 on naive T cell binds B7 on APC
- CD40L on activated T cell binds CD40 on APC

38

IgG [major function, what cytokine induces]

- most abundant, fixes complement
- class switching induced by IFN-gamma [TH1]

39

IgA [major function, what cytokine induces]

- mucosal immunity [gut, lung]
- class switching induced by TGFB

40

IgE [major function, what cytokine induces]

- anti-helminth, allergy
- class switching induced by IL-4

41

What is ITIM?

- downregulates/shuts down B cell antibody production

42

What part of Ig changed in class switching?

constant region

43

Activation Induced Deaminase [AID] [function]

- somatic hypermutaton/affinity maturation in secondary response of B cell

44

Do CTLs need costimulation?

Once activated they don't!

45

What two things to CTL release

- perforin and granzymes

46

2 Mech of ADCC

1. IgG bound to pathogen-infected cell binds NK cell, Nk cell releases cytokines like IFN-gamma and kills cell
2. IgE bound to parasite binds eosinophil, eosinophil degranulates to kill cell

47

Il-13

secreted in type I hypersensitiviy