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Flashcards in Cytoplasm Deck (31)
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What are the two parts of the Cytoskeleton?

The microtubules and the microfiliments.

1

What are the structures of the microtubules and microfiliments?

The microtubules are long hollow rods and the microfiliments are thin rods made of the protein actin.

2

What are the two main types of cells?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

3

What is a eukaryote compared to a prokaryote?

A eukaryote has a nucleus.

4

What are the two main parts of cytoplasm?

The organelles and cytosol.

5

What's the name of the barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytosol?

Nuclear envelope.

6

The DNA itself is wrapped around what two things?

Proteins known as histones entangled in a fibrous network called chromatin.

7

The nucleus also homes this dark spot that manufactures ribosomes.

Nucleolus

8

Ribosomes function?

Manufactures proteins.

9

The ribosomes can be located...

On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or freely in the cytoplasm.

10

All ribosomes have two unequal subunits:

Proteins and RNA.

11

Mitochondria serves what purpose?

Produces energy through a process called respiration.

12

Mitochondria has how many membranes?

Two.

13

What are the folds within mitochondria called?

Cristae.

14

Where does the chemical reaction of respiration take place in mitochondria?

The region formed by the Cristae called the mitochondrial matrix.

15

Endoplasmic reticulum serves what purpose?

Produce proteins.

16

Proteins manufactured by the endoplasmic reticulum is transferred to what part of the cell?

The Golgi apparatus, where they will be exported from the cell.

17

What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?

Smooth and rough.

18

What makes endoplasmic reticulum rough?

Ribosomes.

19

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum serves what purpose?

Moves proteins around the cell and then packages them in to vesicles to be transported to the Golgi apparatus. Also functions in the synthesis of fat and lipids.

20

The Golgi apparatus serves what purpose?

Packages proteins to be exported from the cell.

21

Proteins enter the Golgi apparatus from...

The endoplasmic reticulum and proceed through the stacks where they are modified and stored before secretion.

22

When proteins of the Golgi apparatus are ready for export...

Pieces of the Golgi bud off forming vesicles that send them to the cell membrane.

23

Lysosomes are...

Packages of acidic enzymes that digest compounds and cellular components that the cell no longer needs.

24

Plant cell organelles include:

Chloroplasts, vacuoles, and cell walls.

25

Chloroplasts are:

The organelle in which photosynthesis takes place.

26

The green pigment that absorbs sunlight in chloroplasts is called...

Chlorophyll.

27

Chloroplasts are built like what other organelle?

Mitochondria.

28

Vacuoles are:

Large liquid filled containers in plants.

29

Vacuoles can contain anything from...

Nutrients wastes and pigments