Dairy Cattle Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dairy Cattle Nutrition Deck (69):
1

gestation peroid

280 days

2

how long does lactation last

305 days

3

how long is the dry peroid

60 days

4

T/F dairy farms have births year round

true

5

how many lactations are dairy cows profitable for

3-5

6

when is peak lactation

weeks 4-10

7

T/F DMI decreases with lactation

false (increases)

8

how much of the total production cost is feed

40-50%

9

what is milk production limited by

genetic

environment

10

what are nutrients used for in dairy cows

• Growth in the immature animal

• Pregnancy (especially the last 3 months)

• Fattening/Regaining normal weight lost during lactation

• Maintenance

• Lactation / Milk Production

11

T/F A cow in lactation and fed correctly will use 1⁄2 feed for maintenance and 1⁄2 feed for milk production

true

12

what is the basis of ration

roughages (pasture, hay, silage)

13

T/F dairy cattle need to be supplemented

true

concentrates, grains

14

moisture content of hay when bales

≤20%

15

T/F as green chop matures cow will eat less of it

true-less energy intake

16

what is one of the most popular roughages for dairy cattle

corn silage

17

what needs to be supplemented with corn silage

protein

minerals

18

what is straw

non-grain part of crops (wheats/oats)

19

what does straw add to the diet

fiber

20

T/F straw is a cheap alternative for feeding dry cows and older heifers

true

21

what is pasture ideal for

old heifers and dry cows

22

why is pasture not good for lactating cows

rarely get enough dry matter, get drops in production

23

if low what can be a limiting factor in milk production

energy content

24

how much TDN do grains contain

70-80%

25

T/F processed grains are less digestible

false (more digestible)

26

what can lead to acidosis

finely ground grain

27

what it the most commonly used grain

corn

28

T/F cows tend to feed better when there is corn in the ration

true

29

what cereal has a higher protein content and lower energy content and digestability than corn

oats

30

which 2 cereals should not make up more the 1/2 the grain ration

barely and wheat

31

T/F quantity of protein is more important than quality

true

32

what is corn gluten meal

by product of the wet milling of corn for starch and syrup

33

lbs/head/day of corn gluten meal

5

34

soybean meal

• Excellent source of protein

• Found in many supplements

• Highly palatable

35

sunflower meal

• Good source of Protein and Phosphorus

• Less palatable

36

linseed meal

• Good protein supplement

• Adds shine to hair coat – sale and show animals

• Palatable but laxative

37

cottonseed meal

• High protein content

• Palatable but may cause constipation

38

how much feed-grade urea can be added to a ration

no more 0.4 pound/head/day

39

T/F Feed grade urea should be increased gradually

true - ruminal bacteria may adapt

40

by products of food industry

alfalfa meal

beet pulp

citrus/tomato pulp

whole cottonseed

molasses

41

Ca:P ratio

1.2:1 to 2:1

42

what % of milk is water

85%

43

T/F lactating cows need water in relation to size more than any farm animal

true

44

pH of rumen

6.5

45

what compounds do rumen microorganism digest

cellulose

hemicellulose

46

what are the VFA found in ruminants

acetate, proprionate, butyrate

47

advantages of rumen microorganisms

• Microorganisms can convert inexpensive non-protein N sources into protein for animal use

• Microorganisms can also make their own B vitamins

• Microorganisms can also breakdown some toxins --> ruminant less affected by some poisonous plants

48

disadvantages of rumen microorganisms

• Feed eaten by the animal gets digested by the microorganisms before being absorbed by the animal

• Sometimes Microorganisms will decrease the quality of the feed before the animal uses it (especially proteins)

49

protein and energy guidelines for lactating dairy cows

• Not more than 18-19% CP (Dry Matter basis) in early lactation

• Gradually reduce to 13% CP (Dry Matter basis) in middle/late lactation

• Total ration should contain 60-70% TDN = 0.6-0.8 Mcal net energy per pound of feed

50

fiber guidelines

• Forage is the basis of dairy feeding

• High quality forages, if available, should be used, especially in early lactation

• Feed cows 1.5-2.8 pounds of forage (Dry matter) per 100 pounds of liveweight

• Fibre in the ration is needed to maintain milkfat

• Minimum 15% Crude Fibre in the Diet

51

carbohydrates guidelines

• Milk production and feed efficiency may be achieved by balancing the

amount of NDF and soluble carbohydrates (sugars and starches)

• High level of soluble carbohydrates --> acidosis, low milk fat

• Soluble Carbohydrates recommended at a level of 30-35%

• NDF recommended at a minimum of 28%

• ADF level of 19-21 % is recommended

52

mineral guidelines

Concentrate mix should contain 0.5-1.0% salt and 1% should be a Calcium-Phosphorus supplement

53

what are the most expensive part of the ration

grains and protein supplements

54

what are the 4 feeding phases of dairy cows

Phase 1: Occurs during the first 70 days of lactation; Highest milk production

Phase 2: 70-140 days after calving; Decreasing milk production; Highest DM intake


Phase 3: 140-305 days after calving Continual decrease in milk production

Phase 4: Dry period (40-60 days) Beginning of new lactation period

55

what are the feeding phases based on

milk production, fat test, DM intake, changes in BW

56

what it the most critical feeding peroid

phase 1

rapid increase in milk production, max production 4 weeks after calving

57

methods of feeding dairy cows

• Traditional

• Challenge or Lead Feeding

• Total Mixed Rations

• Automatic concentrate feeders

58

major disadvantage to traditional feeding

low producing cows frequently overfed on concentrates

59

when in challenge or lead feeding used

very small operations

high-producing dairy farms

60

TMR

divided into groups according to production levels

very popular in modern dairy farms

61

equipment needed for TMR

mixer blender unit

weighing device

62

automatic concentrate feeders: 3 types

magnetic, electronic and transponder

63

main goal of automatic concentrate feeders

allow high producing cows to have access to more concentrate

64

T/F Colostrum proteins actively participate in the protection of the neonate against pathogens and other postpartum environmental challenges

true

65

T/F protein absorption is mainly based on immunoglobulins in colostrum

true

66

T/F colostrum is milk

false

67

what regulates colostrum

hormones (estradiol and progesterone)

68

how much colostrum does a dairy calf need

• 1 gallon within 12 hours of birth

• 2 quarts w/i 1 hr of birth and 2 by 12 hr later

• Absolutely essential to avoid FAILURE OF PASSIVE TRANSFER

69

Failure of passive transfer

discharges

polyarthritis

depressed

scours