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Define demography

The study of statistics such as births, deaths income or incidence of disease which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.


Define epidemiology

Branch of medicine that deals with incidence, distribution and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to disease.


What is the demographic transition model?

The demographic transition model shows population change over time. It studies his birth and death rates affect the total population of a country.


What is the 80 / 20 rule?

This is the idea that the richest 20% of the population earn 80% of the worlds population.
This 80:20 is a common phenomenon seen in many other places.


What three things affect population health?

Demographic shape eg age-sex proportions
Economic composition eg wealth distribution
Behavioural and lifestyle factors eg diet and exercise


What does the size of the burden of disease, disability and ageing depend on?

Population size
Population shape
Age-sex specific rates


What are some global determinants of health?

Global Warming,
Socioeconomic factors such as demographic transition, economic transition and behaviour and lifestyle,
Population factors such as population size, population shape and age-sex specific rates.


What is the definition of public health?

The art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organised efforts of society.


What examples are there of primary prevention of disease?

Increasing awareness to stop people getting the disease in the first place. Eg health campaigns to stop excessive drinking or the minimum price per unit on alcohol in Scotland.


What examples are there of secondary prevention of disease?

This is inducing a lifestyle change to prevent things getting worse. Eg change for life encourages people to stop drinking over 14units per week to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease ect..


What examples are there of tertiary prevention of disease?

This is when somebody already has an illness, doing something to prevent it getting worse. Eg if someone is alcohol dependant you may give them vitamin B (thiamin)


What are the three domains of public health?

Health improvement
Health protection
Healthcare, public health


What does “health improvement” of public health involve?

Smoking cessation
Public mental health inc suicide prevention.
Sexual health services
Substance misuse services
NHS health checks
Weight Management
Public health nursing


What does “health protection” of public health involve?

Chemical hazards
Emergency response eg flu
Infectious diseases
Immunisation and Vaccination eg MMR and Andrew Wakefield


What does “healthcare public health” of public health involve?

Strategic direction and leadership
Evaluation and research
Support evidence based decision making
Needs assessment
Service design