Flashcards in December Exam Deck (33)
Explain Bound vs Free Morphemes (with examples)
Bound - Cannot stand alone as a word, -s in dogs
Free - Can stand alone as a word, dog in dogs
Explain Content vs Function Morphemes (with examples)
Content - Refer to something in the world, more or less independent in grammatical function, dog, purple, tennis
Function - Structural information in a word, changes its meaning, -s, -ness, -ed. When added to a root, they are called affixes
Explain Productive Morphemes
It's easy to combine this morpheme in novel ways to make new words
Give an example of a bound content morpheme
Myst-; it's a morpheme that contributes the same meaning to any word it's in, but cannot stand alone
Give an example of a free function morpheme
Will; indicates the future happening of a verb, as well as being an independent word
What are infixes?
An infix is an affix fixed inside a root
What are compound words?
A compound word has two roots; it combines multiple bases/content morphemes
Explain Endocentric vs Exocentric Compounds
Endocentric - One of the bases tells you what the content refers to; eg olive oil is a type of oil
Exocentric - A compound without a head; eg pick pocket is not a type of pocket or pick
Explain Derivational vs Inflectional Morphology
The difference is that inflectional morphology creates different forms of the same word, while derivational creates different types of words. "Govern" example. Derivational can change a word's lexical category and the other cannot
The study of the types of things language can do
A verb is inflected depending on how strongly you believe in what you're saying, "Ahmet came" example
Explain Stem-Internal Changes
Instead of adding something to the base, some morphemes just change the phonological interior. Ex Sing -> sang
Explain Templatic Morphology
Within a word, its patterns of consonants and vowels have separate morphemes; a type of stem-internal change. Ex "kitab" book, "kutub" books
Explain Agglutinative Languages
They add several inflective affixes to each root; each affix represents a single grammatical feature. Ex I am reading "ni-na-soma" vs you are reading "u-na-soma"
Explain Fusional Languages
A single affix represents multiple features. Ex I speak "habl-o" he/she speaks "habl-a"
Explain Polysynthetic Languages
Combine several roots and affixes into one word, using compounding as part of its inflectional morphology.
What is a speech community?
A community of people with similar standards about languange
Explain the John Baugh study
He called real estate agents, using the same script but different accents. Minority dialects did not fair as well; people make social judgments based on linguistic features
What's a linguistic variable?
Any situation where there is more than one way to say the same thing
Explain standard vs stigmatized dialects
Some dialects are seen socially as being "uneducated" or "stigmatized", but this is mainly to promote a type of discrimination. An example is dropping g's, like walkin' and talkin' instead of walking and talking
What is dialectology?
The study of variation between dialects
Explain copula deletion and contraction
Every dialect of English has copula contraction; he is old vs he's old. African-American English adds another option, copula deletion, where you would say "he old". Copula contraction and deletion fit into sentences the same way, they follow the same grammatical patterns.
r -> 0/syllable coda; ie "pak ya ca" went from standard to stigmatized. Fourth floor experiment.
What's a change from above?
A change toward a standard variant, led by a higher social class and motivated by social prestige.
What's a change from below?
A change toward a new variant without existing prestige, usually led by the working or lower middle class. When it's noticed, it becomes stigmatized.
Why do people use stigmatized variants at all?
Covert prestige. Casualness, friendliness, solidarity with low-prestige groups
Explain the Martha's Vineyard case study
Canadian raising. Their economy shifted from fishing to catering toward wealthy mainlanders. Canadian raising was part of the resident dialect, not the tourist, so it became a marker of their group solidarity.
+cons, -everything else