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Flashcards in Deck 1 Deck (27):
1

What are the nerve roots of the Axillary nerve?

C5,6

2

Fracture Patterns

- Transverse (<30 degrees) high energy
- Oblique (30-60 degrees)
- Butterfly
- Segmental
- Spiral (rotational force, low energy)
- Comminuted (complex, more than 2 fracture segments
- Avulsion (tendon, ligament pulls off bone fragments)
- compression
- Greenstick
- Pathologic

3

Name the reasons for splinting

1. Reduces pain and

4

X-ray Rule of 2s

2 sides: left and right
2 views: AP + lateral
2 joints: joint above + joint below
2 times: before and after reduction

5

Valgus shape?

>

6

Varus shape?

<>

7

Indications for open reduction?

NO CAST

Non-Union
Open fracture
Neurovascular compromise
Displaced Intrarticular fracture
Salter Harris 3,4,5
PolyTrauma

8

What are the early local fracture complications

_ Compartement syndrome
- Neurological injury
- Vascular injury
- Infection
- Fracture blisters
- Implant failure
- Visceral injury

9

What are the late local complications of fractures?

- Malunion
- Nonunion
- AVN
- Osteomyelitis
- Post Traumatic OA
- Joint stiffness
- CRPS Type 1/ RSD

(complex regional pain syndrome Type 1,
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome)

10

What are the systemic complications of fractures?

- Sepsis
- DVT
- PE
- ARDS secondary to fat embolism
- Hemorrhagic shock

11

What is Radiculopathy (cervical spine)

Impingement of the nerve root

12

Myelopathy

Impingement of the spinal cord

13

Compression test? (C-spine)

Pressure on the head worsens Radiculopathy

14

Distraction test? (c-spine)

Traction on head improves/relieves Radiculopathy

15

Valsalva test? (In cspine)

Valsalva maneuver worsens radicular pain

16

Volar slab indications

- Forearm and wrist fractures with significant swelling
- Wrist sprains and fractures
- Undisplaced metacarpal fractures

17

Complications of Immobilization in the Old

- Delirium
- Dehydration
- Depression
- Pneumonia
- PE/DVT
- Constipation and Paralytic ileus
- UTI
- Contractures, Stiffness
- Pressure sores

18

Complications of anterior shoulder dislocation

1. Recurrent dislocation (most common)
2. Rotator cuff injury/tear
3. Joint stiffness
4. Hill-Sachs
5. Bankhart
6. SLAP lesion
7. Brachial plexus, axillary nn injury
8. Axillary aa injury

19

SLAP acronym?

Superior labral tear from anterior to posterior

20

Bigliani classification?

Type 1: Flat
Type 2: Curved
Type 3: Hooked

21

Jobe’s test

Shoulder in 90 degree abduction
Then
30 degree forward flexion
Then
Internal rotation (thumbs pointing to floor)

Weakness with active resistance suggest supraspinatus tear

22

The lift off test is used to test which muscle?

Subscapularis

23

Which test can one use to test infraspinatous and teres minor

Posterior cuff test

24

Degrees at which pain occurs in Neers test?

130-170

25

FOOSH

Fall On Out Stretched Hand

26

Clavicle fracture; when to consider ORIF

>2cm shortening (medial and middle 3rd)

Displaced distal 3rd

27

What are the foreign body removal principles?

1) patient must be fully anesthetized
2) bloodless field
3) sterile conditions
4) extend wound properly
5) c-arm x.ray available
6) good night
7) good assistant