Definition #1 Quiz ( Chapter 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Definition #1 Quiz ( Chapter 2) Deck (48):
1

The 6 steps to scientific method / how to analyze your test results :

1) define problem
2) gather relevant data
3)formulate a hypothesis
4) test your hypothesis
5)analyze test results = ( survey , observation , experiment, existing sources )
6) présent a conclusion

2

Operational definition

Is the complete specific and descriptive process that will take place when performing as investigation

3

Causal logic :

The relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence with one event leading to the other

* changes in one variable when mesures directly causes changes in the other *

4

Correlation

A relationship between two or more variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other

5

Independent variable

To cause or to influence another

6

Dépendant variable:

Subject that is influenced by another variable

7

Variable:

Mesurable trait that changes when in different conditions

8

Reliability:

Produces consistent results

9

Mode :

Value that repeats itself for that is most common

10

Sample

Statiscal representation of the population

11

Random sample :

EVERY MEMBER of entire population has chance of being chosen

12

Interview :

Face to face
Telephone questioning
Or respondents to obtain desired information

13

Ethnography :

The study of entire social environment though extending systematic observation

14

Secondary analysis :

the re- analysis of quantitative or qualitative data already collected in a previous study by different researcher other researchers

15

Quantitative research

Research that collects / reports data in numerical form

16

Hawthorne effect / observer effect :

People will unintentionally modify their behavior simply because they are being watched

17

Control group

The group in an experiment that does not receive treatment by researchers

* used as bench mark to measure how the other tested subjects do *

18

Value neutrality

Max w(v)ebers term for objectivity of sociologist in the interpretation of data

19

How do we know the things we know ?

Through ..:

1) personal experience
2) discovering things for ourselves
3) tradition : “ how things have always been “
4) religion
5) science ( using controlled systematic research)

20

Question :What is sociology ?


Question What is sociology ?
Answer : scientific study of human behavior




21

Question: How is sociology considered a scientific study ? ( 2 reasons) :

Question How is sociology considered a scientific study ? :
Answer : 1) because we use
statistics
2) we conduct surveys

22

Question : name three issues that sociologist study :

Question : name three issues that sociologist study :
Answer :
-racism
- government
-religion

23

Question : list 4 examples social categories ( also called = demographics) :

Question : list 4 examples social categories ( also called = demographics) :
Answer :
-race
- age
- gender
- language

24

Question : What do. Sociologist look into : ( name4 )

What do sociologist look into :
Answer :

1) looking at society’s norms/ rules
2) looking at how society is socially constructed
3 )how individual behavior can be shaped by or influenced by groups

4) which groups do we belong to

25

What does The sociological perspective study ?:

What does the sociological perspective study ?

Answer : the sociological perspective studies the impact of social forces on human behavior

26

Can comedians be sociologist? And how

Yes they can because some of them talk about social issues in a micro and macro scale as well as some of them may use statistics when making there statements

27

What does SOCIAL IMAGINATION mean :

What does social imagination need to differ from :


What is C . Wreigh Mills’s ( 1959 ) known for :

What does SOCIAL IMAGINATION mean : social imagination means -
thinking outside the box
- debunking myths and stereotypes
-to not blame the individual
- ability to understand the dynamic between larger «  SOCIAL FORCES = ( institutions) « and people’s personal lives

What does social imagination need to differ from : it needs to differ from
- personal troubles = micro
And
- social issues = macro




What is C . Wreigh Mills’s ( 1959 ) known for : creator of the term “ social imagination “

28

Difference between macro and micro issues : with examples

Macro-level sociology looks at large-scale social processes

Examples of macro : such as social stability and change. Looking and analyzing institutions


Micro-level sociology : looks at small-scale interactions between individuals

Eaxample micro : such as conversation or group dynamics.

29

What are social forces give 3 examples :

1) schools
2) media
3) institutions

30

Case study :
Durkheim and suicide : ( Emile Durkheim)

Name three things that Durkheim studied ? :


List the Differences between three groups :

What myth was Durkheim able to debunk :

What theory did Durkheim develope :

1) studies suicide
2) individual and psychological problems
3 ) why some groups have a higher level of suicide


Diffebces between three groups :
1) looking at single people VS married
2) Looking at urban city VS A rural ( country )
3 )looking at catholic VS. Protestant



What myth was Durkheim able to debunk : he debunked the the myth that suicide is just
individual


What theory did Durkheim développe :
Social integration is what he developed
* if you’re more socially intergrated you’re less likely to commit suicide *

31

What is to commit a ecological fallacy :?

Answer : committing ecological fallacy means to
- apply group level findings to individuals
- using stereotypes instead of thinking sociologically

Example ; Asians in math

32

List the sociologist in order :

1) auguste compte = father of sociology / from France

2) Emile Durkheim = from France

3) Karl Marx = German

4) max Weber = German

5) Harriet Martineau = mother of sociology/ England


33

Name things all the sociologist did / believed in :

Harriet Martineau
Karl Marx
Émile Durkheim
Max Weber
Auguste comte


Harriet Martineau =
-spoke out for women rights ,
-and emancipation of slaves
- religious tolerance
- translated Comte’s work
- conducted empirical research

Karl Marx=
- social order
- integration
- worked on emphasizing importance and significance of power
- Marxism = communist movement in order to unite socialist around Europe
- primary problem in modern society : capitalism = opression




Émile Durkheim = ( he would be a functionalist )
- *studied suicide *
- saw the traditional bases of solodarity
- studied how traditional and modern societies evolved and functioned
- focused on religion and education






Max Weber = ( believed in the “ conflict theory”)
- believed in less individuality
- believed that humans would become machines
- value neutrality = max Weber’s term for objectivity for sociologist through the interpretation of data


Auguste comte = ( hé would be a functionalist)
-*father of sociology *
- invented scientific method called positivism = using surveys / statistics / interviews
- wanted to replace church with sociologist
- wanted to use science to teach people how to behave

34

Name the 4 theories and identify if it’s macro or micro ;

1 ) functionalism = macro looking at big issues analyzing institutions

2)conflict = macro theory looking at big issues and analyzing institutions

3) symbolic interactionist = micro theory


4) feminism = both micro and macro

35

Definition on the 4 theories :

#1) Topic : Functionalism ( Durkheim )

What does functionalism look at ?

What is an EQUILIBRIUM / balance :


What does disruption create :


What does having the same values do to a society :


What are the two functions of a social systems give an example for both :


Functionalism: looks at
- « what is the purpose « 

- does not like Change


What is an EQUILIBRIUM / balance : social systems unchanged if functioning


What does disruption create : disruption creates dis function


What does having the same values do to a society : having the same values stabilizes a society


What are the two functions of a social systems give an example for both :

1) manifest = that is obvious
- example going to school to learn

2) latent = that is hidden
- example = going to school in order to keep teens off the street

36

Définition of 4 theories :

#2) Topic : Conflict theory

What kind of issue is conflict theory micro or macro ? Based on who ?

Who struggles for the three basic ressources ?


What does conflict theory look into ? ( 3 answers )


What are the 3 p’s

What kind of issue is conflict theory micro or macro ?
Answer: macro based on Karl Marx because he focused on class inequality



Who struggles for the three basic ressources ?
Answer : individuals and groups

What are the three p’s :
Answer :
- power
- property
- prestige = status



What does conflict theory look into ?
Answer :
-looks at inequality
- and classism
- It wants change = because it’s the only way people can gain rights

37

Définition of 4 theories :

#3) Topic symbolic interactions :

Is symbolic interactions considered micro or macro ? :?


3 things symbolic interaction look into :?
Answer :

Is symbolic interactions considered micro or macro ? :?
Answer : micro

3 things symbolic interaction look into :?
Answer :
- religious symbols
- gender symbols
- symbols and interactions

38

Definition of 4 theories :

#4) Topic : feminism

Would feminism be considered micro or macro?


Between who does feminism create links with ?


What does feminism focus on :

Definition of ANDROCENTRIC :

Intersectionality , who’s issues does it address :


Intersectionality is micro for who ?

Intersectionality is macro for who ?

Would feminism be considered micro or macro?
Answer : micro and macro because it looks at all inequalities


Between who does feminism create links with ?
Answer : statuses

What does feminism focus on :
Answer : focused on unequal power relations


Intersectionality , who’s issues does it address :
- addresss the issues that affect people of color



Intersectionality is micro for who ?

Intersectionality is macro for who ?

Answer :
Macro = for the whole population of people of color

Micro = for individuals of color
Example = during interviews


Définition of ANDROCENTRIC :
Answer : having a male bias

39

Norms are broken up to two sub categories : folkways and Mores

Folkways : definition / examples

Mores : definition/ examples

Folkways :
- informal norms laid back not strict
- suggestive way of behavior
- no severe condemnation
Examples : screaming , walking on the wrong side , throwing trash on the floor


Mors: you have to follow them , or there will be severe consequences
-very important norms
-strong moral condemnation
Examples : cheating , killing , stealing

40

What is culture ;

Exemples of shared symbols in culture :

How is culture transmitted :

Culture : defines values and beliefs learned through interactions and shared symbols

Examples of shared symbols in culture = names , sports , flags. , language


How is culture transmited :
Transmited to each generation
- stories
- artifacts
- old jewelry


41

2 segments of culture:

Material culture ;


Non material culture:

Material culture : things you can touch physical objects

Non material culture:
- abstract components
Example= values and normes
Can’t touch it

42

Values and normes what’s the difference:

Values ( what we believe as an individual) : beliefs about behavior
- right from wrong
Examples of values : family first, education means success

Norms ( what society expects us to do ): what society / group / person = expects
-rules and expectations = the way to behave
-society guides our behavior

43

Symbolic interactions:

Symbolic interactions: that there is no right or wrong, just meanings we give to symbols

44

What does deductive reasoning start with ?

Theory

45

Who questioned commonly held beliefs and argued that high suicide rates were characteristic of large-scale societal problems?

Durkheim

46

Empirical evidence :

is information acquired by observation or experimentation. Scientists record and analyze this data.

47

Durkheim ‘s theory was

Functionalism = the division of labor and anomie

48

How did Durkheim debunk the myth of suicide being the outcome of individual

he looked at factors that are external to the person who is suicidal including social norms, values, societies control, anything that could effect the person