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Neurology > Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dementia Deck (15):
1

dementia vs delirium

-memory loss that INTERFERES with life*, awake & alert
vs
-not alert, metabolic abnormalities

2

dementia dx

-CT --> to rule out stroke, NPH, tumors
-mini mental state exam
-thyroid function tests
-RPR
-B12 levels

-rule out reversible causes

3

dementia causes

-PML (in AIDS pts) --> JC virus
-Lewy body dementia
-Pick's disease
-CJD -biopsy
-B12 deficiency
-hypothyroidism

4

common causes of dementia

-stroke
-normal pressure hydrocephalus

5

Lewy body dementia px

-Parkinsoniasm symptoms
-hallucinations
-fluctuating cognitive impairment

6

hallucination vs delusion

-visual or auditory stimulus that aren't actually present
vs
-false beliefs

7

Pick's disease px

-frontal & temporal lobes
-lobar atrophy
-SOCIAL appropriateness loss
-memory intact

8

CJD px

-very rapid course (<6 months b/t dx and death)
-rapidly progressive dementia
-myoclonus*

9

CJD dx, tx

-biopsy = most accurate
-CSF --> 14-3-3 protein* = specific

-tx: none

10

dementia px
-mild cognitive impairment
-Alzheimer's
-frontotemporal
-Lewy body
-Parkinson's
-CJD
-multi-infarct
-NPH

-memory loss only
-memory loss + cognition loss
-personality changes, but visuospatial function spared
-fluctuating cognitive impairment + visual hallucinations
-dementia (late onset) + tremor + akinesia + rigidity
-rapidly progressive + myoclonus + 14-3-3
-slowly progressive
-gait abnormalities + incontinence + dementia

11

Alzheimer's px (on CT and clinically)

-diffuse cortical atrophy
-hydrocephalus
-Sylvian fissure enlarged

-memory loss that affects daily life

12

Alzheimer's tx

-inc ACh
-donepezil
-rivastigmine
-galantamine

-memantine --> protects neurons of brain

13

Huntington's disease genetics

-autosomal dominant
-chromosome 4p
-CAG trinucleotide repeat
-high penetration

14

Huntington's dx, tx

-genetic testing
-CT --> cerebral atrophy, caudate atrophy

-clozapine (for behavioral changes)

15

Huntington's px

-personality changes = irritability, apathy, anxiety, depressed, psychotic

-dementia
-movement disorder = chorea