Flashcards in Demographic changes and the family Deck (33)
What are demographics?
The study of populations and their characteristics.
What is the total population size shaped by?
What has happened to the population of the UK overtime?
1801= 10.5 million
2015= 65 million
What is meant by natural increase?
When the number of births exceeds the number of deaths.
What are reasons for the decline in birth rate?
-Changes in position of women
-Decline in infant mortality rate (improved hygiene)
-Children have become an economic asset (children are dependent on parents for longer)
What has caused the slight increase in births since 2001?
Increase in immigration- women from outside UK have higher fertility rates.
What factors contribute to the long-term decline in birth rate due to changes in gender roles?
-Easier access to abortion
-More people cohabiting (less likely to have children)
-Increase in number of women in paid employment
-More opportunities for women in employment
What are the effects of changes in fertility for society?
-Changes in the dependency ratio: relationship between working and non-working parts of population.
*Number of dependent children (short term)
*Fewer adults of working age
-Public services: falling numbers could cause closure in maternity units/ schools
-Changes in gender roles: more time for women's' careers, greater equality in conjugal relationships
What are some of the reasons for the decline in death rate?
-Public health measures/ environmental improvements
What government policies did the ageing population lead to?
-Health care spending
What is net migration?
The difference between the number of long-term immigrants entering and the number of long-term migrants leaving the country.
What factors affect migration?
-Legislation and border control
What has happened to overall life expectancy?
It has risen
1901: Girls=49, Boys= 45
2014: Girls=83, Boys= 79
What is infant mortality rate?
Number of babies dying before the age of one per thousand babies born alone per year.
What has happened to infant mortality rate over time?
Declined ever quicker than overall death rates.
-Fell two third's from 14.5 in 1976 to 3.8 in 2013
What is absolute poverty?
A lack of the basic necessities of life such as food and shelter.
What is globalization?
National boundaries become less important and interconnections between different parts of the globe become more important.
What are push factors?
Factors that give people a reason to emigrate.
(E.g.- people could be fleeing war persecution)
What are pull factors?
Factors that attract people to move to a particular country
(E.g.- political stability and respect for human rights)
What is assimimlation?
Belief that immigrants should take on the culture of a new country.
What is multiculturalism?
Distinctiveness of an immigrant group should be preserved.
RAGHURAM and EREL
Push and pull factors neglect the role of social networks in patterns of migration.
-Much migration takes place in groups and move to where family already live.
Historical and structural factors?
RAGHURAM and EREL
Other factors (economic and political) influence migration- not just globalization.
State may restrict or encourage migration to further the power of the state.
What is meant by CASTLES and MILLER's 'age of migration?
-In each country immigrants are likely to come from an increasingly wide range of countries
-Increasing differentiation of migrants
-A feminization of migration
-An acceleration of migration
-A politicization of migration
What is meant by VERTOVEC's 'super-diversity' of migration?
Involves the rapid growth of migration of different ethnic and nationalities.
Criticises policies of assimilation:
-any attempt to force immigrant communities to integrate will provoke a reaction making division wider.
What 3 factors did DONAL & RATTANSI say why multiculturalism distracts attention from causes of migration?
Multiculturalism distracts attention from causes of tensions caused by immigration:
Globalization and the family?
-Mothers and children may be separated- traumatic
-Global chains of care: Western women rely on migrant workers to carry out tasks for their family
* Leaves a care gap for their own children
-Migrants may marry within their cultural group in order to maintain cultural traditions
What are population pyramids?
Graphs which divide different segments of the population into age groups to illustrate the relative proportion of different age groups