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Medical Definitions > Derm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Derm Deck (58):
1

Macule

Small flat lesion less than 5mm

2

Papule

Small raised lesion over 5mm

3

Maculopapular rash

Rash made up of a mixture of macules and papules

4

Vesicle

Papule filled with fluid (small blister)

5

Pustule

Pus filled vesicle

6

Nodule

Firm swelling greater than 5mm

7

Erythema

Redness

8

Petichiae

Small spots of blood in skin, less than 2mm

9

Scab

Hard crust

10

Flake

Thin pieces of lifted off skin

11

Pruritus

Itchy

12

Lesion

An area of altered skin

13

Rash

An eruption

14

Comedone

A plug in a sebaceous follicle containing altered sebum, bacteria and cellular debris, can present as open (blackheads)or closed (whiteheads)

15

Generalised

All over the body

16

Widespread

Extensive distribution across the body

17

Localised

Restricted to one area of skin only

18

Flexural

In body folds e.g. popliteal and antecubital fossa, behind ears, neck, groin

19

Extensor

Knees, elbows, shins

20

Pressure areas

Sacrum, buttocks, ankles, heels

21

Dermatome

An area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve

22

Photosensitive

Affects sun exposed areas such as face, neck and back of hands

23

Köebner phenomenon

A linear eruption arising at a site of trauma

24

Discreet

Individual lesions separated from each other

25

Confluent

Lesions merging together

26

Linear

In a line

27

Target

Concentric rings

28

Annular

Like a ring or circle

29

Discoid, or nummular

Round, coin shaped lesion

30

Erythema

Redness which blanches on pressure

31

Purpura

Red or purple colour due to bleeding into skin, does not blanch on pressure

32

Petechiae

Small pinpoint macules of Purpura

33

Ecchymoses

Larger bruise like patches of Purpura

34

Hypopigmintation

Areas of paper skin

35

Depigmintation

White skin due to absence of melanin

36

Hyperpigmintation

Darker skin which may be due to various causes e.g. post inflammatory

37

Patch

Larger area of altered colour or texture

38

Plaque

Palpable scaling raised lesion over 5mm in diameter

39

Bulla

Raised, clear, fluid filled lesion over 5mm in diameter. Larger blister.

40

Abscess

Localised accumulation of pus in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue

41

Weal

Transient raised lesion due to dermal oedema

42

Boil or furuncle

Staphylococcal infection around or within a hair follicle

43

Carbuncle

Staphylococcal infection of adjacent hair follicles (multiple boils)

44

Excoriation

Loss of epidermis following trauma

45

Lichemification

Well defined roughening of skin with accentuation of skin markings

46

Scales

Flakes of stratum cornermen

47

Crust

Rough surface consisting of dried serum, blood, bacteria, and cellular debris that has exuded through an eroded epidermis

48

Scar

New fibrous tissue which occurs post wound healing, may be atrophic (thinning), hypertrophic (hyperproliferation within wound boundary) or keloidal (hyperproliferation beyond wound boundary)

49

Ulcer

Loss of epidermis and dermis (heals with scarring)

50

Fissure

An epidermal crack often due to excessive dryness

51

Striae

Linear areas which progress from purple to white, with histopathological appearance of a scar (associated with excessive steroid usage and glucocorticoid production, growth spurts and pregnancy)

52

Alopecia

Loss of hair

53

Hirsutism

Androgen dependent hair frown in a female

54

Hypertrichosis

Non androgen dependent pattern of excessive hair growth (usually in unexpected places)

55

Clubbing

Loss of angle between the posterior nail fold and nail plate (associated with suppurative lung disease, cyanotic heart disease, IBD...)

56

Koilonychia

Spoon shaped depression of the nail plate (associations include iron deficiency anaemia, congenital and idiopathic)

57

Onycholysis

Separation of the distal end of the nail plate from the nail bed (associations include trauma, psoriasis, fungal nail infection and hyperthyroidism)

58

Pitting

Punctuate depressions of the nail plate (associations include psoriasis, eczema, and alopecia areafa)