Dermatology Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Small Animal Medicine II 2017 > Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (437):
1

Pruritis

Itch - unpleasant sensation of the skin that provokes the urge to scratch

2

What can lead to Pruritis in dogs?

Infection
Allergies
Parasites

3

What are the types of allergens that cause pruritis in dogs?

Flea allergen
Atopy
Food hypersensitivity
Verminosis/mites
Contact hypersensitivity

4

Atopy

environmental allergen

5

What Ectoparasites cause pruritis in dogs?

Sarcoptes
Demodecosis
Secondary pyoderma
Cheyletiella
Lice
Chiggers

6

What infections are the causes of pruritis in dogs?

Pyoderma - bacterial infections
Dermatophytosis
Yeasts

7

What is responsible for alopecia of the caudal dorsum in dogs?

Flea allergy dermatitis

8

What is responsible for feet licking and chewing in dogs?

Food allergy
atopy

9

What is responsible for alopecia of the Elbows and ears in dogs?

Sarcoptic mange

10

What causes seasonal pruritis?

Flea allergy
Atopy
Insect allergy

11

What causes non-seasonal pruritis?

Scabies
Food allergy
Flea allergy
Atopy
Secondary infections
Demodecosis

12

What is the scale used to Grade Pruritis?

Scale 1-10

13

What diseases are extremely pruritic?

Scabies
Flea bite allergy
Food allergy

14

If pruritis came before the lesions consider:

Allergies
Scabies

15

If lesions showed up before the pruritis consider:

Demodecosis
Dermatophytosis

16

What antibiotics cause allergic reactions?

Sulfonamides
Penicillins
Cephalosporins

17

What is the most common cause of skin disease?

Fleas

18

Primary Dermatological lesions

initial eruption that develops spontaneously as a direct reflection of the underlying disease
Appear and disappear quickly

19

Secondary Dermatological lesions

Evolve from primary lesions or are artifacts induced by the patients or by external factors such as trauma/biting/licking and medication
Stay around for a much longer time period

20

What are primary skin lesions?

Macule or Patch
Papule or plaque
Pustule
Vesicle or bulla
Wheal
Nodule
Tumor or cyst

21

What are characterized as primary or secondary lesions?

Alopecia
Scale
Crust
Follicular casts
Comedo
Pigmentary abnormalities

22

What are secondary skin lesions?

Epidermal collarette
Scar
Excoriation
Erosion or ulcer
Fissure
Lichenification
Callus

23

Macule

Flat spot (<1cm) on skin with change in skin color

24

Patch

Macule >1cm

25

Papule

Small, solid elevation in skin up to 1 cm in diameter

26

Plaque

Coalition of papules forming flat-topped elevation

27

What causes a plaque?

a Hotspot

28

Vesicle

Elevation of epidermis filled with clear fluid

29

Bulla

Vesicle > 1 cm in diameter

30

Wheal

Sharply delineated lesion of edema

31

What causes Wheals?

Hypersensitivity

32

Nodule

Solid raised palpable lesion > 1cm. Can include abscess (fluctuant lesion in dermis or SQ from pus)

33

Nodule: Tumor

Large palpable mass - neoplastic

34

Cyst

Epithelial lined cavity with solid or fluid material

35

Alopecia

Absence of hair from area where it is normally present

36

Scale

Accumulation of loose fragments of horny layer of skin

37

Crust

Accumulation of dried serum, exudate on surface of skin

38

Follicular casts

Accumulation of keratin and sebaceous material stuck to a hair shaft

39

Comedone

Dilated hair follicle filled with debris

40

What breed is predisposed to Comedone?

Schnauzers

41

What causes Comedones?

Hyperthyroidism
Hyperadrenocorticism

42

Epidermal Collarette

Scale arranged in circular pattern

43

What is an epidermal collarette associated with?

Pustule
Vesicle
Bullae

44

Scar

Fibrous tissue has replaced the damaged dermis or s/c tissue

45

Excoriation

Linear abrasion of the skin

46

Erosion

Shallow ulcer that does not break the basal layer

47

Ulcer

Break in epidermis with exposure of dermis

48

Fissure

Linear cleavage (crack) in the epidermis or dermis caused by disease or injury

49

Lichenification

Thickening and hardening of the skin, note exaggerated skin lines

50

Callus

A localized hyperplasia of the stratum corneum of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction.

51

What is a common sites of Callus formation in dogs?

Elbows
lateral hock areas

52

What two dermatological parasites lead to eggs in the feces?

Hookworms
Sarcoptes

53

What are the surface mites seen on superficial skin scrape?

Sarcoptes
Notoedres
Otodectes
Cheyletiella
Demodex gatoi in cats

54

What are follicular parasites?

Demodex spp.

55

Anagen hair

active growth phase for the hair

56

Telogen hair

the hair has achieved maximum growth and is dying

57

What can you see on Acetate tape impression smear?

bacteria
fungi
yeasts

58

What type of hypersensitivity is Flea Allergic Dermatitis?

Type 1 Hypersensitivity

59

What is the most common allergic skin condition in dogs and cats?

Flea Allergic Dermatitis

60

Where is Flea Allergy Dermatitis distributed?

Lumbo-sacral distribution
Tail base
Caudo-medial thighs
Ventral abdomen
Flanks

61

What do cats present with with Flea Allergy Dermatitis?

Miliary dermatitis

62

What can be seen with Flea Allergy Dermatitis?

Pruritic crusting eruption
secondary erythema
seborrhea
excoriation
pyoderma
hyperpigmentation
lichenification

63

Seborrhea

Scaly skin

64

What is a more definitive diagnostic test for Flea allergy dermatitis?

Flea Antigen Test Intradermal flea allergy test

65

What is the treatment for Flea Allergy Dermatitis?

Flea eradication

66

What are the three types of flea eradication products?

Knock down product
Insect growth regulator
Environmental control

67

What does Advantage treat?

kills adult fleas before they lay eggs and prevent eggs from being shed

68

What does Revolution treat?

Kills adult fleas and prevents eggs from hatching

69

What does Vectra 3D treat?

prevents development of flea eggs and Larvae

70

What does Promeris treat?

kills fleas

71

What type of hypersensitivity is Atopy?

Type 1 Hypersensitivity

72

Atopy

Allergic dermatitis

73

What is the most common cause of Atopy?

House Dust Mites

74

What are the characteristic signs of Atopy?

Pruritis
Chronic or relapsing/seasonal signs

75

What is the age of onset for Atopy?

4 months to 7 years

76

Where is Atopy distributed?

Paws
Face
Distal extremities
elbows
ventrum
otitis

77

How do you diagnose Atopy?

Serum test (RAST and ELISA tests)
Intradermal skin tests

78

What do Allergy tests detect?

Allergen-specific IgE

79

What is the gold standard for diagnosing Atopy?

Intradermal allergy testing

80

What are the three possible therapies for Atopy?

ASIT (Allergen-specific immunotherapy)
Allergen avoidance
Symptomatic relief

81

What are the two forms of allergy shots?

Subcutaneous immunotherapy
Sublingual immunotherapy

82

What is a weak therapy for the treatment of Atopy?

Antihistamines
Antidepressants
Essential fatty acids
Topical therapies

83

What is a fair therapy for the treatment of Atopy?

Skin lipid therapy

84

What is a strong therapy for the treatment of Atopy?

Glucocorticoids
Cyclosporine A
Oclacitinib

85

How does Skin Lipid complex work?

restores the epidermal barrier

86

What are the side effects of Corticosteroids?

PU/PD
Polyphagia
Weight Loss
Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism
Iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism with sudden withdrawal
Susceptible to infections
Urinary incontinence
Behavior changes

87

What is Cyclosporine A?

Anti-allergic and immunosuppressive

88

What are the side effects of Cyclosporine A?

V/D
exacerbates skin infections

89

How does Oclacitinib work?

Janus kinase inhibitor - JAK1 and JAK 3 enzymes
Decreases itching and inflammation

90

What are the first antihistamines used?

Hydroxyzine and Citirizine

91

What are the second antihistamines used?

Clemastine

92

What are the clinical signs associated with Adverse food reactions?

Vomiting
diarrhea
abdominal discomfort
bloat
Dermatological signs

93

Food idiosyncrasy

Resembles food allergy but does not involve immune system

94

Food poisoning

Direct non-immune response to a food or toxin

95

Pharmacological reaction

Drug-like or pharmacological effect of food on host

96

Food indiscretion

Gluttony, pica, or ingestion of indigestible material

97

What does Lactose intolerance cause?

diarrhea
bloating
abdominal discomfort

98

What fish contains histamine and vasoamine?

Mackerel
Tuna

99

What does Acute Food Allergy cause?

Systemic consequences
Respiratory distress
Vascular collapse
Urticaria

100

What are the antigens related with Food allergies?

Proteins
Glycoproteins
Carbohydrates

101

What are the most common food antigens in dogs and cats?

Beef protein

102

What food is food allergy in dogs related to?

Beef protein

103

What food is food allergy in cats related to?

Beef protein
Fish

104

What type of hypersensitivity are food allergies commonly?

Type 1 hypersensitivity

105

What are the clinical signs of food allergies?

Pruritis
Hyperemia
Angioedema
Local reaction in GIT: Diarrhea, Abdominal discomfort/bloating, vomiting

106

What is the third most common hypersensitivity skin disease?

Food Allergies

107

What is the age of onset for food allergies?

less than 1 year of age

108

What time of year does food allergies happen at?

Non-seasonal - more in summer when wet and humid

109

What Primary type of lesions do you see with food allergies?

local or generalized pruritis
Recurrent moist dermatitis
Papules
Erythema
Wheals
Plaques/pustules

110

What secondary type of lesions do you see with food allergies?

Excoriation
Crusting
Hyperpigmentation
lichenification
ulcers due to deep scratches

111

Where are the lesions localized with food allergies on dogs?

Muzzle
Ears
Distal limbs
Paws
Axillae
Groin region

112

Where are the lesions localized with food allergies on cats?

Head
Face
Pinnae
Neck

113

What clinical signs are sometimes seen with food allergies?

Vomiting
diarrhea
Colic

114

What is the treatment for food allergies?

Positive response to an elimination diet

115

How long does it take for food allergies to improve in dogs?

3 weeks

116

What is the biggest limitation for food allergy treatment?

Owner compliance

117

How do you diagnose food allergies?

Intradermal skin testing
ELISA Serology
Colonoscopy allergen provocation
Skin biopsy

118

What are the three options available for treatment of food allergies?

Low allergy commercial diet
Homemade hypoallergenic diet
Hydrolyzed protein diet

119

Hydrolyzed protein diet

Protein is hydrolyzed into small particles less than 10,000 Daltons

120

Urticaria

Hives

121

Angioedema

Swelling of the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and face

122

How do you treat Urticaria and Angioedema?

Remove the antigen
Injectable antihistamines
Injectable steroids
Dyspnea

123

What is the type of hypersensitivity for Contact Dermatitis?

Type 4 Hypersensitivity reaction

124

What causes contact dermatitis?

Prolonged exposure with an offending surface

125

What are the clinical signs of contact dermatitis?

Pruritic lesions
Hairless areas
Lips affected if food bowl is the cause
Neck lesions if the collar is the problem

126

How do you diagnose Contact Dermatitis?

Rule out differential
Patch Test
Histopathology

127

What is the treatment for Contact Dermatitis?

Identify and remove the offending allergen

128

What are the common ectoparasites of dogs?

Sarcoptes
Demodecosis
Cheyletiella
Lice
Chiggers

129

What results in intense pruritis?

Sarcoptic mange

130

Clinical signs of Sarcoptic mange?

Positive pinnal pedal reflex
intensely pruritic
poorly steroid responsive
sparsely haired areas
Secondary weight loss

131

What areas are affected by Sarcoptic mange?

Hocks
elbows
pinnal margins
ventral abdomen and chest

132

How do you diagnose Sarcoptic mange?

Response to treatment
Positive pinnal-pedal reflex
Fecal Flotation

133

How do you treat Sarcoptic mange?

Topical dips: anti-seborrheic shampoo
Topical spot on or systemic: Selamectin, Moxidectin, Ivermectin, Milbemycin, Fipronil

134

How is demodex transmitted?

during the first three days of life during suckling

135

What does Demodex cause?

Parasitic folliculitis

136

Clinical signs of Demodex

Focal and patchy alopecia

137

Pododermatitis

Inflammation between the paws

138

Localized Demodecosis

One to several well circumscribed erythematous, scaly, non-pruritic areas of alopecia on the face and fore-limbs

139

Generalized Demodecosis

less than 12 lesions Coalescing over the general body

140

How do you diagnose Demodecosis?

Deep Skin scrapes
Biopsy
Histopathology

141

What is the treatment for Localized Demodecosis?

Heals spontaneously

142

What is the treatment for Generalized Demodecosis?

Long term treatment of Amitraz for 3 weeks

143

What should you avoid with Demodecosis?

Steroids

144

What are the clinical signs of Cheyletiella?

Walking dandruff
Scaling
Pruritis
Papular crusts

145

How do you diagnose Cheyletiella?

Seen with the naked eye crawling on fur
Acetate tape test

146

Treatment of Cheyletiella

Topical: Shampoos, Spot-ons
Treat environments

147

What causes Hookworm dermatitis?

Ancylostoma
Uncinaria

148

What are the clinical signs of Hookworm dermatitis?

Interdigital areas
areas in contact with the ground
Intensely pruritic
Erythema
alopeica
thickening

149

How do you diagnose Hookworm dermatitis?

Fecal flotation

150

Where on the body do you find Chiggers?

legs
head
abdomen

151

Where on the body do you find chiggers on cats?

inside the ears

152

How do you diagnose Chiggers?

Skin scrapes
Red color
Clinical signs

153

How do you treat Chiggers?

Two pyrethrin dips spaced 2 weeks apart
Topical antiparasitic drugs

154

What are the four types of surface pyoderma?

Pyotraumatic pyoderma
Intertrigo
Mucocutaneous pyoderma
Bacterial overgrowth

155

Impetigo

a condition that occurs in puppies on their ventral abdomen from bacterial overgrowth

156

Furunculosis

infection has broken through follicle and into the skin

157

Cellulitis

infection of the fat under the dermis

158

What is an exampled of Surface pyoderma?

Hotspot

159

Surface pyderma

Surface of skin

160

Superficial pyoderma

Epidermal layer and/or hair follicles, papules, pustules, epidermal collarettes, crusts

161

Deep pyoderma

Dermal layer or subcutis plus follicles. Exudation of blood and/or pus, crusting, odor ulceration, tract fistula, swelling

162

How do you treat surface mixed pyoderma?

Topically

163

How do you treat superficial staphylococcus pyoderma?

Systemic and topical

164

How do you treat deep pyoderma?

Systemic, long term, topical

165

What are the clinical signs of pyoderma?

Pustules
Papules
Crusts

166

How do you diagnose pyoderma?

Cytology of bacteria
Culture

167

When is a bacterial culture mandatory for pyoderma?

less than 50% improvement within 2 weeks of treatment
New lesions
Residual lesions at 6 weeks
Intracellular rods on cytology
History of MRSA or MRSP

168

What do you culture for pyoderma?

Pustules
Under crusts
Epidermal collarettes

169

Why is Topical therapy important?

Decreases duration of systemic Antibiotics

170

When do you use Benzoyl Peroxide with pyoderma?

Pyoderma with oily seborrhea or comedones

171

When do you use Chlorhexidine with pyoderma?

Pyoderma with dry seborrhea or normal skin/coat

172

Mupirocin

bacteriostatic/bacteriocidal used topically and effective against Gram-positive including MRSA

173

Silver Sulfadiazine

topical antibacterial used topically on wounds, burns, and ear infections including Pseudomonas

174

What do you use for 1st tier pyoderma therapy?

Cephalosporins
Clavamox (Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid)
Clindamycin

175

What do you use for 2nd tier pyoderma therapy?

Sulfas
Erythromycin
Lincomycin
Doxycycline

176

What is used as a LAST RESORT for pyoderma therapy?

Fluoroquinolones
3rd generation cephalosporins

177

For how long do you treat superficial pyoderma?

1 week beyond resolution

178

For how long do you treat deep pyoderma?

2 weeks beyond resolution

179

What type of pyoderma is Acute traumatic pyodermatitis?

Surface pyoderma

180

What type of pyoderma is Puppy pyoderma/ impetigo?

Superficial pyoderma

181

What type of pyoderma is Nasal folliculitis/furunculosis?

Superficial and deep pyoderma

182

What type of pyoderma is Chin acne or chin pyoderma?

deep pyoderma

183

What type of pyoderma is Lick granuloma (acral lick dermatitis)?

deep pyoderma

184

Mucocutaneous pyoderma

Bacterial infection of the lips

185

What are the clinical signs of Mucocutaneous pyoderma?

Mucocutaneous swelling
erythema
crusting
painful pruritic fissures

186

How do you treat Mucocutaneous pyoderma?

Clip and clean the area
Mupirocin

187

What are the clinical signs of Pyotraumatic dermatitis?

Lesion, red, moist, exudative crusting
Alopecia
painful lesions

188

How do you treat Pyotraumatic dermatitits?

Clip and Clean area
Clean with antibacterial disinfectant
Topical treatment: Antibiotic/steroid

189

What causes Impetigo?

Staphylococcus spp.

190

What is the pathogenesis of Impetigo?

Poor husbandry

191

What are the clinical signs of Impetigo?

Vesicles/pustules
Non-follicular pustules
Ventral hairless areas

192

How do you diagnose Impetigo?

Cytology

193

How do you treat Impetigo?

Antibacterial shampoos
Topical antibiotics washes/creams

194

What causes Superficial pyoderma?

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

195

What is the underlying cause for superficial pyoderma?

Self trauma
Parasitic infestation

196

What are the 3 most common causes of folliculitis in dogs?

Bacterial
Dermatophytes
Demodex

197

What can folliculitis progress to?

Furunculosis
cellulitis

198

What are the clinical signs of Superficial pyoderma?

Tiny pustules with hair shaft protruding from center
Follicular papule
Patchy focal alopecia
Epidermal collarette
Scaling
Seborrhea
Hyperpigmentation
excoriation

199

How do you diagnose Superficial pyoderma?

Recognition of lesions
Cytology from skin scrape

200

How do you treat Superficial pyoderma?

Antibiotics for a minimum of 21-28 days
Antibacterial shampoo

201

What is the physical component of the defense of the skin?

Compact stratum corneum
Lipid emulsion and intercellular cement

202

What is the most important pathogen in deep pyoderma?

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

203

What predisposes skin to disease?

Seborrhea

204

What are the clinical signs of deep pyoderma?

Deep draining tracts
clusters of ulcers
necro-hemorrhagic purulent bullae or abscesses

205

How do you diagnose Deep Pyoderma?

Cytology: Cocci found in pyogranulomatous exudate
Biopsy
Bacterial culture and antibiogram

206

How do you treat deep pyoderma?

Topical management
Systemic antibiotics

207

How long do you treat deep pyoderma?

2 weeks after resolution

208

What are common antibiotics used to treat deep pyoderma?

Amoxycillin - clavulanic acid
Cephalexin
Trimethoprim sulfas
Enrofloxacin
Erythromycin

209

What are the clinical signs of Actinomyces?

Subcutaneous abscesses, draining tracts
Thick yellow-grey hemorrhagic fowl-smelling exudate +/- sulphur granules

210

How do dogs get Actinomyces?

infection from trauma, penetrating wounds

211

How do you diagnose Actinomyces?

Anaerobic culture
Cytology

212

How do you treat Actinomyces?

Surgical debulking
Long term Antibiotics: Clindamycin

213

What type of bacteria is Actinomyces?

Gram positive anaerobic

214

What type of bacteria is Nocardia?

Gram positive filamentous aerobe

215

Clinical signs of Nocardia?

Pyothorax

216

How do you diagnose Nocardia?

FNA/Cytology
Histopathology
Culture

217

How do you treat Nocardia?

Surgical debulking, drainage
Long term antibiotics

218

What are the clinical signs of Mycobacteria?

Slowly developing subcutaneous nodules, non-healing abscesses, cellulitis, ulcer, fistulas
Drain sero-anguineous/purulent exudate
Regional lymph nodes enlarged

219

How do you diagnose Mycobacteria?

Cytology
Histopathology
Culture

220

How do you treat Mycobacteria?

Wide surgical excision
Long term antibiotics

221

What are the clinical signs of Skin fold pyoderma/Intertrigo?

Moist malodorous pruritic in between skin folds

222

Where do you find Skin fold pyoderma/Intertrigo?

Lip fold in spaniels
facial folds in bulldogs
tail root folds
vulva folds
body folds in Shar Pei

223

How do you diagnose Skin fold pyoderma/Intertrigo?

Clinical presentation
signalment

224

What is the treatment for Skin fold pyoderma/Intertrigo?

Topical: Shampoos, rinses, topical antibiotics

225

Where do you commonly find Malassezia dermatitis?

Ear
Lip folds
ventral neck
Axilla
Interdigital
Perianal

226

What is Malassezia associated with?

Allergic dermatitis
Endocrinopathies
Keratinization disorders
Immunosuppression

227

What are the clinical signs of Malassezia?

Pruritis
Malodor
Erythema
Greasy scaly plaques
Paronychia

228

Seborrhea oleosa

Greasy skin

229

How do you diagnose Malassezia?

Cytology

230

How do you treat Malassezia?

Anti-yeast shampoos 2-3x week
Systemic: Ketoconazole, Itraconazole

231

What are the clinical signs of Dermatophytosis?

Circular alopecia with scaling

232

What is important about Dermatophytosis?

zoonotic

233

What is the most common fungal infection of humans?

M. canis

234

How do you diagnose Dermatophytosis?

Wood's Lamp
Microscopy of hair pluck
Fungal culture
Biopsy

235

How do you manage Dermatophytosis?

Treat underlying diease
treat source
treat organism

236

How do you treat Dermatophytosis?

Topical therapy:
Systemic therapy: Griseofulvin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole

237

How long do you treat for Dermatophytosis?

6-12 months

238

What do you do for animals in catteries with dermatophytosis?

Separate infected animals
Treat the animals
Decontaminated the environment

239

How does pruritis differ in cats from dogs?

Owner may not see pruritis

240

How are skin lesions different in cats with pruritis?

Bilateral symmetrical hair loss with normal skin
Miliary dermatitis
Eosinophilic granuloma complex

241

What are common skin conditions in cats?

Fleas
Ringworm

242

What is the reason for hair loss if the hair is granular and course in cats?

Cat is licking itself

243

What is the reason for hair loss if the hair is smooth in cats?

Hair is falling out by itself

244

What ectoparasites are seen in cats?

Notoedris
Demodex gatoi
Cheyletiella
Ectopic ear mites
Fur mites

245

How do you diagnose Psychogenic alopecia in cats?

Diagnosis of rule out

246

What causes symmetrical alopecia in cats on the medial thighs, ventral abdomen, and medial forelimbs?

Anxiety

247

What areas of the cat are affected by symmetrical alopecia in cats?

Medial thighs
Ventral abdomen
Medial forelimbs

248

What causes pruritic symmetrical alopecia in cats on the caudodersal aspect?

Flea bite dermatitis

249

How do you treat Psychogenic symmetrical alopecia in cats?

Behaviour modification
Antipsychotics

250

What areas of the cat are effected by atopic dermatitis?

medial thighs
ventrum
forelimbs
flanks

251

Feliway

Pheromones released during birth used to soothe anxious cats

252

What parts of the cat are affected by Notoedres cati?

Pinna
face
neck
forelimbs
whole body

253

What are the clinical signs of Notoedres cat?

Alopecia
wrinkled skin
papular rash
crusts

254

How do you diagnose Notoedres cati?

Skin scrapes

255

How do you treat Notoedres cati?

Lime sulphur dips
Ivermectin
Selamectin
Imidocloprid

256

What are the side effects of Ivermectin used in cats?

Neurological problems

257

How do you diagnose Demodex in cats?

Deep skin scrape

258

What are the clinical signs of Demodex gatoi?

Alopecia
crusts
scaling
pruritis

259

How do you treat Demodex gatoi?

Lime sulphur dips with Elizabethan collar

260

What are the clinical signs of Fur mites in cats?

"salt and pepper" appearance of mites
Hair falls out easily

261

How do you diagnose Fur mites in cats?

Acetate tape test

262

How do you treat Fur mites in cats?

Pyrethrin spray
Lime sulphur dip
Fipronil spray
Ivermectin
Selamectin
Milbemycin

263

What endocrine diseases in cats cause Symmetrical alopecia?

Hyperthyroidism
Hyperadrenocorticism

264

What non-pruritic lesions cause symmetrical alopecia in cats?

Pancreatic neoplasia

265

What areas on the a cat are affect by Pancreatic neoplasia?

Ventrum and legs

266

What are the clinical signs of Pancreatic neoplasia symmetrical alopecia?

"shiny appearance of the skin
Hair epilates easily
concurrent anorexia
lethargy

267

Miliary dermatitis

Crusted papule
multifocal distribution of skin lesions with no identifiable pattern
Erythema
secondary alopecia
excoriations

268

What is the most common cause of miliary dermatitis?

Flea allergic dermatitis

269

What viruses can cause miliary dermatitis in cats?

Herpes
FIV
FeLV

270

What are the three presentations of Eosinophilic granuloma complex?

Indolent ulcers
Eosinophilic plaques
Collagenolytic granuloma

271

Indolent ulcer

well-circumscribed proliferative inflammatory lesions with a dish shaped ulcer centrally

272

Where do you find Indolent ulcers in cats?

Upper or lower lip

273

Eosinophilic plaque

well circumscribed reddish yellow ulcerated edematous intensely pruritic plaque

274

What is eosinophilic plaque associated with in cats?

Allergic etiology

275

Collagenolytic granuloma/eosinophilic granuloma

Well circumscribed linear or raised nodular firm yellow-pink lesion

276

Where do you find Atypical eosinophilic granuloma on cats?

over the bridge of the nose, ear pinnae

277

How do you diagnose Eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats?

Cytology
+/- culture
Biopsy
Histopathology

278

What is the treatment for eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats?

Strict parasite control
Medical therapy: Glucocorticoids, Cyclosporine A

279

What is the pathogenesis of Feline Acne?

Idiopathic disorder of follicular keratinization

280

What are the clinical signs of Feline Acne?

Comedones on the chin and lower lip
Papules and pustules
Furunculosis and scaring

281

What is the treatment for Feline Acne?

Treat secondary infection
Clip hair and clean the area with human acne preparation

282

What are the infectious causes of Feline Acne?

Bacterial: Nocardia, Actinomyces, Mycobacterium
Fungal: Dermatomycoses

283

What are the non-infectious causes of Feline Acne?

Panniculitis
Collagenolytic granuloma
Foreign bodies
Neoplasia

284

What are the clinical signs of Feline Acne?

Nodules that open up and drain
Draining tracts
Draining fluid may be serous to purulent

285

How do you diagnose Feline Acne?

Full dermatological examination
Skin biopsy

286

How do you treat Feline Acne?

Treat underlying disease

287

What are the two parts to the Tympanic membrane?

Pars flaccida
Pars tensa

288

Bulging Pars tensa

Material in the tympanic bulla

289

Otitis externa

Inflammation of the ear canal

290

Predisposing causes of Otitis externa?

Stenosis
Hair in canals
Pendulous pinnae
swimmers ear
overactive glands
polyps
neoplasms

291

Primary causes of Otits externa

Parasites
Microbes
Atopy
food hypersensitivities
drug reactions
contact hypersensitivity
Keratinization disorders
glandular disorders
autoimmune diseases
solar dermatitis

292

Perpetuating factors of Otitis externa

Bacteria
yeast
topical reactions
foreign bodies
Epidermal hyperplasia
hyperkeratosis
dermal edema or fibrosis
lumen stenosis
cartilage mineralization
tympanic membrane changes
middle ear disease

293

What do you do if the ear is too inflamed to exam?

send home anti - inflammatories for 4-7 days

294

What are the main causes of otitis externa in dogs?

Allergies

295

What is the main cause of otitis externa in cats?

Parasites

296

What are the 2 important aspects of the ear that are predisposing factors?

Conformation
Hair

297

What does head shaking cause?

Hematoma

298

Clinical signs of acute Otitis externa?

Head shaking
Scratching ears
Rubbing ears
Otic discharge
Malodor
Red pinna
Swollen ear

299

What does coffee ground ear discharge mean?

Mites

300

What does Moist brown ear discharge mean?

Staph or yeast

301

What does creamy yellow ear discharge mean?

Gram negative bacteria

302

What does oily yellow tan ear discharge mean?

glandular disorder, hypersensitivity

303

How do you diagnose Otitis externa?

Ear smears
Bacterial culture and sensitivity
Radiography
Computed tomography

304

How do you clean Otitis externa?

Control the predisposing causes
Ceruminolytic
Removal of pus
Drying agent

305

Ceruminolytics

emulsify waxes/lipids so they can be flushed away

306

What do you avoid if you can't seen an intact pars tensa?

Ceruminolytics
cleaning solutions
dyring agents

307

What are the clinical signs of a ruptured Tympanic membrane?

Deafness
Head tilt
Horner's Syndrome

308

How do you treat Otitis externa?

Glucocorticoids
Antibiotics
antifungals
parasiticides

309

Poloxamer otic gels

change to gel at body temperature
compounded with various drugs
Reaches horizontal ear canal without puncturing the tympanic membrane

310

What do you used to treat Gram negative gentamycin resistant infections?

Polymixin-B

311

How do you treat Otitis externa?

Topical preparations
Polymixin-B
Topical enrofloxacin
TRIS EDTA
Antiseptics
Silversulfadiazine
Systemic therapy: Glucocorticoids, Antibiotics, Antifungals, Antiparasiticides

312

Persistant Otitis Externa

Greater than 2 months

313

Recurrent Otitis externa

Greater than 6 months

314

Otitis media

inflammation of middle ear

315

5 ways to diagnose OM

Signs: Horner's syndrome and/or facial paralysis
Abnormal tympanic membrane: ruptured, bulging
Bullae rads/CT/MRI
Myringotomy
Cytology and culture of middle ear

316

How does OM causes Horner's syndrome?

disrupts the SYmpathetic nervous system and the facial nerve traveling through the middle ear

317

What is common in CKCS?

Primary secretory otitis media (PSOM)

318

How do you diagnose Primary Secretory otitis media?

a bulging pars flaccida = PSOM

319

How do you treat Primary Secretory Otitis media?

Myringotomy and middle ear flush

320

Primary Keratinization disorders

Zinc-responsive dermatosis
Sebaceous adenitis
Primary idiopathic seborrhea
Schnauzer comedo syndrome
Ear margin dermatosis

321

Crusting Dermatitis

Superficial necrolytic dermatitis

322

Seborrhea sicca

dry skin, white or grey flakes, scales

323

Seborrhea oleosa

Oily skin, greasy feel to haircoat, rancid odor, brown sticky yellow scales

324

Zinc-responsive dermatosis Syndrome 1

Decreased capacity to absorb zinc from intestines

325

Zinc-responsive dermatosis Syndrome 2

Dietary deficiency

326

What is the treatment for Zinc-responsive dermatosis?

Oral zinc
Fatty acids
low dose glucocorticoids

327

What are the clinical signs of Zinc-responsive dermatosis?

Pruritis and scales/crusts on the mouth, chin, eyes, ears, elbows, pressure points, scrotum, prepuce, vulva
Hyperkeratotic footpads

328

Sebaceous adenitis

Uncommon idiopathic dermatosis
Sebaceous gland destruction/inherited defect
Cell mediated immunological reaction
Defect in keratinization/obstruction of sebaceous ducts
Abnormal lipid metabolism

329

Clinical signs of Sebacous adenitis

Bilaterally symmetrical on face, head, pinnae, and trunk
Ceruminous otitis externa
dogs have a rat tail
non-pruritic

330

Clinical signs of Sebacous adenitis in cats

multifocal annular lesions of scale, crust and broken hair and hair casts and alopecia starting around their head and moving caudally

331

Treatment for Sebacous adenitis

Keratinolytic shampoos
Omega 3/6 fatty acids
Retinoids
Cyclosporine

332

Primary idiopathic seborrhea (vitamin A responsive dermatosis)

Hereditary disorder of keratinization causing epidermal turnover in 7 days
causes abnormal cornification and desquamation

333

At what age does Primary idiopathic seborrhea happen?

starts weeks to months after birth.
Mild scaling worsens with age

334

Clinical signs of Primary Idiopathic seborrhea?

Follicular casts prominent
Ceruminous otitis

335

How do you diagnose Primary Idiopathic Seborrhea?

Exclude all other causes
Eliminate secondary factors
Biopsy

336

How do you treat Primary Idiopathic Seborrhea?

Oral vitamin A

337

Schnauzer comedo syndrome (Schnauzer bumps)

inherited dysplasia of the hair follicle resulting in the formation comedones on the back

338

What are the clinical signs of Schnauzer comedo syndrome (Schnauzer bumps)?

Sharp
crusted ppapular eruptions from neck to tail base
Secondary folliculitis and furunculosis

339

How do you treat Schnauzer comedo syndrome (Schnauzer bumps)?

Regular antiseptic and anti-seborrheic shampoo
Humectants after shampoo
Topical benzoyl peroxide gel
Isotretinoin

340

With what breeds are Ear margin dermatosis common in?

Dachshund

341

Clinical signs of Ear margin dermatosis

Follicular casts and partial alopecia on pendulous ears

342

Treatment for Ear margin dermatosis

Moisturizing agents
topical sulfur salicylic acid shampoo
topical g-corticoid cream
pentoxifylline

343

What is the age of onset for Superficial necrolytic dermatitis?

10 years old

344

Clinical signs of Superficial necrolytic dermatitis

Hyperkeratotic
crusty
cracking footpads
Erythema
Scaling
crusting
erosive

345

What parts of the body are affected by Superficial necrolytic dermatitis?

Mucocutaneous junctions
Legs
hocks
elbows
ear pinna

346

How do you diagnose Superficial necrolytic dermatitis?

Liver dysfunction seen on CBS and Chem panel
Honey comb pattern in liver or mass in pancreas
biopsy lesions

347

Behavioural dermatoses

Acral lick granuloma

348

Acral lick granuloma

Self-induced trauma of skin through excessive licking and chewing

349

How do you diagnose Acral lick granuloma?

Histopathology
Bacterial culture and antibiogram

350

How do you treat Acral lick granuloma?

treat underlying cause
treat secondary bacterial infections
topical analgesia
Steroids
tricyclic antidepressants serotonin re-uptake inhibitors

351

Idiopathic lupoid onychodystrophy

Lupus-like disease resulting in claw loss

352

Clinical signs of Idiopathic lupoid onychodystrophy

Acute nail loss
All claws affected
Nails are deformed and brittle with secondary infection

353

What is the most common nail disorder of cats?

Idiopathic lupoid onychodystrophy

354

How do you diagnose Idiopathic lupoid onychodystrophy?

Histopathology
Amputation P3/dewclaw

355

How do you treat Idiopathic lupoid onychodystrophy?

Essential fatty acids, Vitamin E

356

How do you diagnose Immune-mediated skin disorders?

Histopathology
Biopsy

357

What is the treatment for Immune-mediated skin disorders?

Immunosuppressive drugs: Glucocorticoids, Cyclosporine A

358

Pemphigus complex

Vesiculobullous to pustular disorders of the skin or mucous membranes characterized by acantholysis

359

Acantholysis

a loss of intercellular connections resulting in a loss of cohesion between keratinocytes

360

Pemphigus erythematosus

Benign form of pemphigus foliacious

361

What can aggravate Pemphigus erythematosus?

UV light

362

What are the clinical signs of Pemphigus erythematosus?

Erythema
pustular dermatitis on the face and ears
oozing crusts, scale, alopecia, and erosion bordered by epidermal collarettes
Depigmented nose

363

How do you diagnose Pemphigus erythematosus?

Histopathology and immunofluorescence

364

How do you treat Pemphigus erythematosus?

Sun avoidance
Topical glucocorticoids or cyclosporine

365

What is the most common immune mediated condition?

Pemphigus foliaceus

366

What is the major antigen of Pemphigus foliaceus?

desmoglein 1

367

what is the age of onset of Pemphigus foliaceus?

4 years

368

Clinical signs of Pemphigus foliaceus?

Pustular dermatitis
Pustular crusting
On the face, ear, feet, clawbeds, footpads, and groin
Scales
alopecia
erosions bordered by epidermal collarettes
Nasal depigmentation

369

How do you diagnose Pemphigus foliaceus?

Skin biopsy
Histopathology with immunofluorescence

370

Treatment of Pemphigus foliaceus

Topical corticosteroids or cyclopsporine

371

Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies

desmoglein 3

372

Clinical signs of Pemphigus vulgaris

Anorexic
depressed
febrile
vesiculobullous disease
erosive to ulcerative disorder that affects the oral cavity, mucocutaneous junctions, skin
Cutaneous lesion sin the axillae and groin region
ulcerative paronchyla

373

How do you diagnose Pemphigus vulgaris?

Skin biopsy
Histopathology
Immunofluorecence

374

How do you treat Pemphigus vulgaris in dogs?

High dosese of oral prednisolone and azathioprine

375

How do you treat Pemphigus vulgaris in cats?

Chlorambucil

376

Bullous pemphigoid

Subepidermal vesicle formation due to autoantibodies against antibodies of the basal cell hemidesmosomes

377

What are the clinical signs of Bullous pemphigoid?

Cutaneous lesion in groin and axillae and nail beds - vesicle/bullae ulceration bordered by epidermal collarettes
Oral lesions

378

How do you diagnose Bullous pemphigoid?

Skin biopsy
immunofluorescence

379

What is the treatment for Bullous pemphigoid?

Immunosuppressive therapy
Immunomodulatory therapy

380

Lupus erythematosus

autoimmune disease process where T-cells predominate in these disease

381

DLE

Discoid Lupus erythematosus

382

SLE

Systemic Lupus erythematosus

383

What aggravates Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

UV light exposure

384

What cells predominate Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

T-helper cells

385

What is the reason for Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

T-helper cells are activated by damaged keratinocytes which have elevations of ANA

386

What is the reason for Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

T-helper cells are activated by damaged keratinocytes which have elevations of ANA

387

What are the clinical signs of Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

Depigmentation
erythema
scaling of the nose
Erosions
ulceration
crusting

388

How do you diagnose Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

Histopathology
Thickening of the basement membrane zone due to cellular infiltration

389

How do you treat Discoid Lupus erythematosus?

Avoid sunlight
topical sunscreens
Topical and systemic corticosteroids
Vitamin E
Immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive

390

What are the clinical signs of Systemic Lupus erythematosus in dogs?

Fever
polyarthritis
proteinuria
skin disease
Alopecia
erythema
vesiculobullous to ulcerative disorder

391

How do you diagnose Systemic Lupus erythematosus?

ANA test
Histopathology/immunohistochemistry of the skin or oral mucosa

392

How do you treat Systemic Lupus erythematosus?

Immunosuppressive therapy
Immunomodulatory agents

393

What are the cutaneous effects of a Cutaneous adverse drug reaction?

ALopecia
purpura
poor wound healing
hyperpigmentation
pruritis
Erythema multiforme
toxic epidermal necrolysis
Urticarial plaques
vesciles or bullae

394

Where are the lesions distributed with Erythema multiforme?

Ventrum
axillae
groin
Mucocutaneous junction
Oral cavity
Pinnae
Footpads

395

How do you diagnose Erythema multiforme?

Clinical signs
Histopathology

396

How do you treat Erythema multiforme?

Eliminate trigger

397

What is the cause of Toxic epidermal necrolysis?

Drugs
Flea dips

398

What are the clinical signs of Toxic epidermal necrolysis?

Multifocal or generalized vesiculobullous disease

399

How do you diagnose Toxic epidermal necrolysis?

Skin biopsy - full thickness epidermal necrolysis with minimal inflammation

400

How do you treat Toxic epidermal necrolysis?

Find underlying causes
systemic glucocorticoids

401

Clinical signs of Vasculitis?

Purpura
wheals
edema
papules
nodules
alopecia
scarring
necrosis
ulceration
of the extremities

402

How do you diagnose Vasculitis?

Histopathology

403

How do you treat Vasculitis?

Find underlying disease
Pentoxifylline
Immunosuppressive drugs
Immunomodulatory drugs

404

Nodule

Solid, raised palpable lesion greater than 1 cm

405

Tumor

Larger, palpable mass of neoplastic origin

406

Diagnostic approach to nodules

FNA of nodule and the lymph node draining the area
impression smear of any discharge
Biopsy
Culture

407

What is the etiology of Papillomatosis in dogs?

Papilloma virus or idiopathic

408

What is the signalment of a dog with oral papillomatosis?

Young or immunosuppressed

409

Diagnostics for Papillomatosis

FNA
Excisional biopsy

410

Treatment for Papillomatosis

Crushing
Laser or cryotherapy
Azithromycin for 3 weeks
Topical Imiquimod for 1-2 days
Interferon
Surgical excision

411

Nodular panniculitis/steatitis

Solitary to multiple, Firm to floculant, Raised, well demarcated and can ulcerate and scar
Inflamed S/C fat caused by systemic disease

412

Where do you find Nodular panniculitis/steatitis?

Dorsal trunk, neck, prox. limbs

413

Where do you find Sterile pyogranuloma in dogs?

Head
Pinna
Feet
footpads

414

How do you treat Sterile pyogranuloma in dogs?

Corticosteroids
Tetracycline + Niacinamide
Azathioprine
Cyclosporine A

415

What is the age of animals with Histiocytoma?

Less than 4 years old

416

Where do you find Histiocytoma on dogs?

Cranial 1/4 of body

417

How do you diagnose Histiocytoma in dogs?

Aspiration cytology

418

How do you treat Cutaneous Histiocytoma in dogs?

Steroids
Cyclopsorine
Tetracycline + Niacinamide

419

How do you treat Systemic Histiocytoma in dogs?

Cyclosporine
Lomustine

420

Where do you find Histiocytosis on felines?

Legs
Feet
Face

421

Nodular dermatofibrosis

Multiple cutaneous nodules consisting of mature collagen hyperplasia seen in 3-7 year old German Shepards

422

What is Nodular Dermatofibrosis associated with?

Bilateral renal cysts
Cystadenomas
Cystadenocarcinomas

423

How do you treat Nodular dermatofibrosis?

Treat underlying disease
Remove masses if possible
no effective treatments

424

What is the etiology of Juvenile cellulitis?

Unknown
Maybe Immune mediated

425

What is the signalment of Juvenile Cellulitis?

3 weeks to 6 months in Gordon Setters, Golden Retrievers, and Dachshunds

426

Clinical signs of Juvenile Cellulitis

Acute non-pruritic
swelling face submandibular of the Lips, muzzle, and eyelids

427

What is the common name of Juvenile Cellulitis?

Puppy Strangles

428

How do you diagnose Juvenile Cellulitis?

Cytology
Biopsy
Culture

429

How do you treat Juvenile Cellulitis?

Topical: treat crusts
Systemic: Prednisolone then EOD

430

Sebaceous cyst

Cysts are epithelial lined cavities with either solid or fluid material that develop when a hair follicle or skin pore gets blocked by dirt, debris, scar tissue, or infection

431

What is the treatment for Sebaceous cyst?

Can resolve without treatment
Excision

432

How do you prevent Sebaceous Cyst?

Benzoyl peroxide

433

What should you avoid doing to Keratin Inclusion Cyst?

Lesions should not be manually expressed since such manipulation can cause subepidermal rupture and furunculosis

434

How do you treat Lipomas?

Surgically remove

435

Clinical signs of Fly Bite Dermatitis from biting flies?

Tips of ears - erythema, bleeding, oozing, crusting

436

Clinical signs of Fly Bite Dermatitis from Tumbu flies?

Tail base, ventral abdomen - painful, reddend nodule (3-5mm in diameter)

437

Treatment for Fly Bite Dermatitis?

Topical fly repellant
Remove maggots
Cover the breathing holes with vaseline