Developmental Aspects of Children and Adolescents Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Aspects of Children and Adolescents Deck (32):
1

Frontal Lobe

Voluntary motor activity
Speaking activity
Elaboration of thought
Executive functions

2

Occipital Lobe

Initial processing of visual input

3

Parietal Lobe

Receives and processes sensory input

4

Temporal Lobe

Emotions
Memory
Cognition
Speech

5

Limbic System

Found in the temporal lobe
Comprised of the amygdala and the hippocampus
Regulates:
-Behavioral awareness
-Fear
-Social behavior
-Rage
-Sexual desire

6

Thalamus

Appetite

7

Hypothalamus

Regulates homeostatic function
Links the nervous and endocrine systems
Helps regulate emotion and basic behavioral patterns

8

Pituitary Gland

Secretes hormones under the influence of the hypothalamus

9

Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)

Coordinates slow, sustained movements
Suppresses useless patterns of movement

10

Cerebellum

Maintains balance
Enhances muscle tone
Coordinates and helps plan skilled voluntary muscle activity
Chronic substance abuse effects lead to ataxia
Tested with Romberg

11

Trust v. Mistrust

Infancy
Goal: Develop trust in primary caretaker and generalize it to others
Failure: Difficulty receiving and giving

12

Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt

Early childhood (18m-3yr)
Goal: Gain some self-control and will power
Failure: Lack of self-confidence and rage against one's self

13

Four lobes of the cerebrum

Frontal
Occipital
Parietal
Temporal

14

Initiative v. Guilt

Early childhood (3-6 yr)
Goal: To identify and direct his activities
Failure: Feelings of inadequacy and guilt

15

Industry v. Inferiority

School age (6-12)
Goal: Self-confidence and peer recognition
Failure: Low self-esteem and poor interpersonal relations

16

Piaget's Sensorimotor

0 to 2 years:
Reflexive movements
Understanding of action and result
Differentiate self from other objects
Hold mental image.

17

Piaget's Preoperational

2-7
-Symbolic play and understanding
-Only in present--no clear understanding of time
-Non-contested respect for authority
-Cannot distinguish real from fantasy

18

Piaget's Concrete Operational

7-11 years
-Understanding of spatial relationships
-Think about past and present
-Begins to value others

19

Piaget's Formal Operational

11-15+ years
-Future thinking
-Abstract thinking
-Complex problem solving

20

Ethological Theories

Study of animals extrapolated to us.
Conrad Lorenz with his geese showing imprinting.

21

Attachment

Viewed as being similar to imprinting
Necessary for infants to survive
Broad attachments up to 6 months of age
More specific attachments after 6 months

22

Hinde

Sensitive periods of development of:
-Language
-Emotional attachment
-Social relationships
Any deficit during sensitive periods may have adverse effect on child
-How severe the early deprivation?
-Which later environmental influences meet important needs?

23

Piaget's Moral Development Stages

Amoral
Moral Realism
Autonomous Morality

24

Amoral Stage

0-7 years
No morals

25

Moral Realism Stage

Child sees behavior as totally right or totally wrong
Right and wrong is based on consequences
Belief in imminent justice

26

Autonomous Morality Stage

Attained late middle childhood or early adolescence
Right and wrong is based on social contracts
Considers how actions affect others

27

Temperament

Characteristics of child that interact with environment
-Rothbart: Defined 3 dimensions
-Thomas & Chess: Focused on "goodness of fit" between child's temperament and expectations of environment/caregivers

28

Rothbart's 3 dimensions of temperament

Extraversion/surgency
Negative affectivity
Effortful control

29

HLA-B*1502 Allele in persons of Asian descent

FDA requirement to test for this allele before prescribing carbemazepine for risk for Stevens-Johnson

30

Identity v. Role Confusion

Adolescence (12-20)
Goal: Development of a secure self identity
Failure: Lack of direction and confidence in self

31

Affective Storms

Severe, violent, outbursts of irritability, anger, and attacking behavior. For Bipolar they must occur 3 times per week, and be present for a year.

32

Mood Stabilizers for Children

Divalproate for age 2 and up
Tegretol for age 6 and up
Lithium for 12 and up