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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (49):
1

The endocrine effects of insulin on muscle and adipose tissue include

increased glycogen synthesis


2

Metabolic actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics) include

glucose dependent insulin secretion


3

Inhibition of intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates, delaying carbohydrate absorption is from the intestine into the vasculature is the mechanism of action of which drug class?



alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose)


4

Consideration related to prescribing a biguanide (metformin) of which the APN provider should be aware include:



potential for lactic acidosis.
possible modest weight loss


5

You are the provider for a patient with Type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. Select the drug least appropriate to prescribe in this patient

alpha glycosidase inhibitor

6

The study of how individual genetic differences affect drug response is termed

pharmacogenomics


7

Which antibiotic class has bacteriocidal activity, post antibiotic effect, concentration dependent killing and excellent gram negative organism coverage?



fluoroquinolones


8

Adverse effects of peripheral neuropathy and seizures, caution for use in patients with preexisting CNS disorders and reaction to alcohol ingestion are all associated with which of the following agents

metronidazole


9

The serious hypersensitivity reaction of Steven Johnson Syndrome is most associated with which antimicrobial agent?



Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole


10

Genetic alterations; modifications of target sites; and enzymatic inactivation; are all examples of:



mechanisms of resistance


11

Where does non-insulin dependent glucose uptake take place at?

Brain and splenic bed

12

Where does insulin dependent glucose take place at?

muscle

13

β-cell destruction and absolute insulin deficiency represents which type of diabetes?

DM1

14

Insulin resistance and progressive relative insulin deficiency represents which type of diabetes?

DM2

15

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by?

1. Resistance to insulin
2. Insufficient insulin release
3. Both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency

16

Type 1 DM is described as?

--Absolute insulin deficiency
– Autoimmune destruction of the β cells

17

Type 2 DM is described as?

Deficit in insulin secretion
• β-cells lose function
Insulin resistance

18

What is the primary site for insulin resistance

muscle

19

What are the acute complications of DM2?

Hypoglycemia
DKA
HHS

20

What are the chronic complications of DM2?

Cardiovascular disease
retinopathy

21

The 3 clinical P's of DM2?

Polydipsia
Polyphagia
Polyuria

22

DKA at diagnosis and the honeymoon phase are related to what form of DM?

DM1

23

what are the pre diabetes criteria

impaired fasting glucose 100-125
impaired glucose tolerance 140-199
HgbA1C 5.7-6.4

24

A1c levels for glycemic control should be?

under 7

25

Binds to receptors on the pancreatic β-cells leading to membrane depolarization with subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion is the mechanism of action of what drug class?

sulfonylureas

26

The first generation of sulfonyureas are?

chlorpropmide
tolbutmide

27

the second generation of sulfonyureas are?

glyburide
glipizide
glimepiride

28

Reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increase in insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissue is the mechanism of action for what drug class?

Biguanides

29

the main biguanide is what?

metformen

30

The two meglitinides are?

Starlix
Prandin

31

Meglitinides depend on what for their mechanism of actions?

glucose for activity

32

The increase in the expression of genes responsible for glucose metabolism and increase in insulin sensitivity represents the mechanism of action for what drug?

Thiazolidinediones

33

The two thiazolidinediones are?

Actos
Avandia

34

The major side effects of thiazolidinediones are?

***HF***
Bone fracture

35

Slowing the absorption of glucose from the intestines into the vasculature is the mechanism of action for what drug?

Alpha glucosidase inhibitors

36

The two alpha glucosidase inhibitors are?

acarbose
miglitol

37

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease should not be given what drug class?

alpha glucosidase inhibitors

38

If an alpha glucosidase inhibitor is combined with secretagogue hyperglycemia occurs. How do you treat it?

with glucose

39

what mechanism of action is used primary for cholesterol?

bile acid sequestrates

40

Bile acid sequestrates should not be used with patients suffering from?

URI or UTIs
bowel obstruction

41

The one bile acid drug is?

colesevelam

42

Incretin Analogs include?

GLP-1 analogs
Amylin analogs

43

Glucose dependent insulin, reduction in glucagon, reduced gastric emptying, promotion of satiety occur when this mechanism of action occurs

GLP-1 analogs

44

The two GLP-1 analogs are?

Exenatide (Byetta)
Liraglutide (Victoza)

45

GLP-1 analogs are contraindicated in patients suffering with?

impaired renal function
medullary thyroid carcinoma

46

The amylin analog is?

Pramalintide

47

The black box warning for pramalintide is

hypoglycemia in patients with DM1

48

Rapid acting insulin includes

Humalog (lispro)
Novalog (aspart)
Apidra (glulisine)

49

Long acting insulin includes

Lantus (gargine)
Levemir