Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (49):
The endocrine effects of insulin on muscle and adipose tissue include
increased glycogen synthesis
Metabolic actions of GLP-1 receptor agonists (incretin mimetics) include
glucose dependent insulin secretion
Inhibition of intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates, delaying carbohydrate absorption is from the intestine into the vasculature is the mechanism of action of which drug class?
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose)
Consideration related to prescribing a biguanide (metformin) of which the APN provider should be aware include:
potential for lactic acidosis.
possible modest weight loss
You are the provider for a patient with Type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. Select the drug least appropriate to prescribe in this patient
alpha glycosidase inhibitor
The study of how individual genetic differences affect drug response is termed
Which antibiotic class has bacteriocidal activity, post antibiotic effect, concentration dependent killing and excellent gram negative organism coverage?
Adverse effects of peripheral neuropathy and seizures, caution for use in patients with preexisting CNS disorders and reaction to alcohol ingestion are all associated with which of the following agents
The serious hypersensitivity reaction of Steven Johnson Syndrome is most associated with which antimicrobial agent?
Genetic alterations; modifications of target sites; and enzymatic inactivation; are all examples of:
mechanisms of resistance
Where does non-insulin dependent glucose uptake take place at?
Brain and splenic bed
Where does insulin dependent glucose take place at?
β-cell destruction and absolute insulin deficiency represents which type of diabetes?
Insulin resistance and progressive relative insulin deficiency represents which type of diabetes?
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by?
1. Resistance to insulin
2. Insufficient insulin release
3. Both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency
Type 1 DM is described as?
--Absolute insulin deficiency
– Autoimmune destruction of the β cells
Type 2 DM is described as?
Deficit in insulin secretion
• β-cells lose function
What is the primary site for insulin resistance
What are the acute complications of DM2?
What are the chronic complications of DM2?
The 3 clinical P's of DM2?
DKA at diagnosis and the honeymoon phase are related to what form of DM?
what are the pre diabetes criteria
impaired fasting glucose 100-125
impaired glucose tolerance 140-199
A1c levels for glycemic control should be?
Binds to receptors on the pancreatic β-cells leading to membrane depolarization with subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion is the mechanism of action of what drug class?
The first generation of sulfonyureas are?
the second generation of sulfonyureas are?
Reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increase in insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissue is the mechanism of action for what drug class?
the main biguanide is what?
The two meglitinides are?
Meglitinides depend on what for their mechanism of actions?
glucose for activity
The increase in the expression of genes responsible for glucose metabolism and increase in insulin sensitivity represents the mechanism of action for what drug?
The two thiazolidinediones are?
The major side effects of thiazolidinediones are?
Slowing the absorption of glucose from the intestines into the vasculature is the mechanism of action for what drug?
Alpha glucosidase inhibitors
The two alpha glucosidase inhibitors are?
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease should not be given what drug class?
alpha glucosidase inhibitors
If an alpha glucosidase inhibitor is combined with secretagogue hyperglycemia occurs. How do you treat it?
what mechanism of action is used primary for cholesterol?
bile acid sequestrates
Bile acid sequestrates should not be used with patients suffering from?
URI or UTIs
The one bile acid drug is?
Incretin Analogs include?
Glucose dependent insulin, reduction in glucagon, reduced gastric emptying, promotion of satiety occur when this mechanism of action occurs
The two GLP-1 analogs are?
GLP-1 analogs are contraindicated in patients suffering with?
impaired renal function
medullary thyroid carcinoma
The amylin analog is?
The black box warning for pramalintide is
hypoglycemia in patients with DM1
Rapid acting insulin includes