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Biology Part 1- Human Biology > Diet > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diet Deck (101)
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1

what is the function of the mouth?

where food enters the alimentary canal and digestion begins

2

what is the function of the oesophagus?

muscular tube which moves ingested food to the stomach

3

what is the function of the stomach?

muscular organ that secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.

4

what is the function of the small intestine (duodenum)?

where food is mixed with digestive enzymes and bile

5

what is the function of the small intestine (ileum)?

where digested food is absorbed into the blood and lymph

6

what is the function of the large intestine (colon)?

where water is reabsorbed

7

what is the function of the large intestine (rectum)?

where faeces are stored

8

what is the function of the pancreas?

produces digestive enzymes

9

how is food moved through the gut through peristalsis?

food is moved through the digestive system by the contractions of two sets of muscles in the walls of the gutTheir wave-like contractions create a squeezing action, moving down the gut. This series of wave-like contractions is called peristalsis. One set runs along the gut, while the other set circles it.

10

how is the small intestine adapted for absorption?

the inside wall of a small intestine is very thin with a large surface area. The inside wall of the small intestine is also lined with tiny villi that stick out and give a big surface area. They also contain blood capillaries to carry away the absorbed food molecules

11

what is the role of digestive enzymes?

to break down nutrients into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed

12

what is the role of proteases?

to catalyse the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine

13

what is the role of lipase?

to catalyse the breakdown of fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine

14

what is the role of amylase?

catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose in the mouth and small intestine

15

what is the role of maltase?

catalyses the breakdown of maltose into glucose in the small intestine

16

where is bile produced?

the liver

17

where is bile stored?

the gall bladder

18

what is the role of bile?

neutralises hydrochloric acid allowing an alkaline environment for enzymes to work at their optimum pH. Breaks down lipids into smaller molecules with larger surface area to volume ratio so lipase can break them down faster into fatty acids

19

what is respiration?

respiration is a reaction that occurs in living things to create energy by breaking down glucose

20

what are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

aerobic is with oxygen, anaerobic is without oxygen

21

what is the word equation for aerobic respiration in living organisms?

glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water

22

what is the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration in living organisms?

C6H1206+602=6CO2+6H20

23

what is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animals?

glucose=lactic acid+energy

24

what is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?

glucose=ethanol+carbon dioxide+energy

25

what are the ribs?

a bone structure that protects vital organs such as the lungs

26

what are intercostal muscles?

muscles between the ribs to control inhalation and exhalation

27

what is the diaphragm?

sheet of muscle at the bottom of the thorax that helps with inhalation and exhalation

28

what is the trachea?

windpipe that connects the mouth and nose to the lungs

29

what are bronchi?

thick tubes that divide into two bronchi, one bronchus for each lung

30

what are bronchioles?

bronchi split forming smaller tubes called bronchioles in the lungs connected to alevoli