Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (20):
1

Digestion is-?

Breaking down of food.

2

What all is in the digestive system?

1) mouth
2) esophagus
3) stomach
4) small intestines
5) large intestines
6) rectum
7) anus

3

What are the supporting organs of the digestive system?

1) tongue
2) salivary glands
3) pancreas
4) liver
5) gall bladder

4

The mouth is where ___________ begins?

digestion

5

___________ - chewing of food.

Mastication

6

___________ - triggers stomach to produce acid

mastication

7

Saliva - contains enzymes for digesting ____________.

starches and fats

8

_____________ - connects the mouth to the stomach

esophagus

9

_____ - Gastroesophageal reflux disease (heart-burn)
a) stomach acid escapes into the __________
b) __________ ___________ - for helping clean any stomach acid (neutralize an acid with a base)

GERD
a) esophagus
b) salivary bicarbonate

10

________ - primary place where proteins are disassembled and broken down into peptides
1) decontamination chamber of _________
2) _______ - body of stomach ____________ (HCL)
4) function of HCL:
a) destroys ____________
b) untwists protein chains, a process called ___________
c) pepsin creates small _______
5) ____________ -primarily responsible for fat hydrolysis
6) ________ - food acid enzyme mixture

stomach
1) bacteria
2) fundus
3) hydrocholoric acid
a) toxins in food
b) denaturation
c) chains of peptides
5) gastric lipase
6) chyme

11

Small intestine - maximizes the ______ and ______ process

digestion and absorption

12

Small intestine:
inner folds - expanded surface area called:
a) plicae b) ______ c) microvillus

villi

13

Small intestine:
enzymes present (disaccharidases) - hydrolyze disugars
a) ______ b) maltase c) ________

a) sucrase
c) lactase

14

Small intestine:
____________ - part of the small intestine closest to the stomach
a) neutralization chamber
b) ______ is mixed with becarbonate - lessens chyme's acidity
c) more enzymes function to breakdown ____________
1) protein digestion - cutting proteins and peptides into _____ ____ ______
2) carbohydrate/starch digestion - amylase continues hydolysis of _______
3) _____ and _____ - nutrients taken up efficiently

duodenum
b) chyme
c) macromolecules
1) amino acid chains
2) starch
3) iron and calcium

15

Small intestine:
_______ - middle section of the small intestine
a) where most nutrients are actively absorbed
1) _______ ______
2) _________
3) minerals
b) active ___ absorption - occurs in duodenum and jejunem
1) fat is made into _____ ________ and transported directly
2) bile - ________ fat, produced by the _____, stored in the _______ and released into the duodenum and jejunem
3) fat soluble vitamins: _, _, _, _

jejunum
1) amino acids
2) vitamins
b) fat
1) small aggregates
2) soluble fat, produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and released into the duodenum and jejunem
3) vitamins: A, D, E, K

16

Small intestine:
______ - final part of the small intestine
a) completes digestion
b) vitamin ___ is absorbed
c) ___% of vitaminds, minerals, and nutrients have been absorbed by the end of the small intestine

ileum
b) B12
c) 90%

17

Large Intestine - specialized for conserving _______ and ______
1) _ft long
2) _______ - primary food left in large intestine
3) ______ hours - time spent in large intestine
4) ecosystem of bacteria - necessary for ____________ of fiber
5) nutrients from fiber are necessary fo the health of _____ cells
6) _______ - (pro-life) friendly colon bacteria
a) creates ________ from fiber
b) stops _________ (disease-promoting) bacteria
c) fiber that is not fermented - provides bulk for _____ ________ binds ______ and waste
7) rectum and _____ - allow for elimination of stool

sodium and water
1) 5 ft long
2) fiber
3) 6-12 hours
4) fermentation
5) colon
6) probiotics
a) nutrients
b) pathogenic
c) stool excretion binds and toxins
7) anus

18

Pancreas - _______ factory
1) produces ______ that digest:
a) ______
b) ____
c) _____________
2) 1 liter of _____________ released per day

protein
1) enzymes
a) protein
b) fats
c) carbohydrates
2) pancreatic juice

19

_______ - detoxification system
1) ______ and _____ are chemically converted and eliminated through the _______ (urine) or _________ (stool).
2) synthesizes (makes) ________ for the blood
3) produces _____ for the digestion of fats
4) maintains healthy blood sugar (_______) levels
5) __________ - the form in which glucose is stored in the liver
6) metabolizes _____

Liver
1) drugs and toxins are chemically converted and elimated through the kidneys (urine) or intestines (stool)
2) protein
3) bile
4) glucose
5) glycogen
6) fats

20

__________ - storage site for bile acids needed for fat digestion

gall bladder