Digestive Vocab Flashcards Preview

MT 2 Digestive > Digestive Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive Vocab Deck (58)
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1
Q

absorption

A

passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream

2
Q

amino acids

A

small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested

3
Q

amylase

A

enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch

4
Q

anus

A

terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body

5
Q

appendix

A

blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant RLQ).

6
Q

bile

A

digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall. Composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts

7
Q

bilirubin

A

pigment released by the liver in bile

8
Q

bowel

A

intestine

9
Q

canine teeth

A

pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth

10
Q

cecum

A

first part of the large intestine

11
Q

colon

A

large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum

12
Q

common bile duct

A

carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called the choledochus

13
Q

defecation

A

elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus

14
Q

deglutition

A

swallowing

15
Q

dentin

A

the primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root

16
Q

digestion

A

breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms

17
Q

duodenum

A

first part of the small intestine. 12 inches long

18
Q

elimination

A

act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces

19
Q

emulsification

A

physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat

20
Q

enamel

A

hard, outermost layer of a tooth

21
Q

enzyme

A

a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances.

22
Q

esophagus

A

tube connecting the throat to the stomach.

23
Q

fatty acids

A

substances produced when fats are digested

24
Q

feces

A

solid wastes; stool

25
Q

gallbladder

A

small sac under the liver; stores bile.

26
Q

glucose

A

simple sugar

27
Q

glycogen

A

starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells

28
Q

hydrochloric acid

A

substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food

29
Q

ileum

A

third part of the small intestine.

30
Q

incisor

A

one of four front teeth in the dental arch

31
Q

insulin

A

hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver

32
Q

jejunum

A

second part of the small intestine.

33
Q

lipase

A

pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats

34
Q

liver

A

a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out RBCs. The normal adult liver weighs about 2.5-3 lbs

35
Q

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

A

ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called the cardiac sphincter

36
Q

mastication

A

chewing

37
Q

molar teeth

A

the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars

38
Q

palate

A

roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat

39
Q

pancreas

A

organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods)

40
Q

papillae

A

small elevations on the tongue

41
Q

parotid gland

A

salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear

42
Q

peristalsis

A

rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the GI tract, peristalsis moves the contents through at different rates: stomach, 0.5-2 hours; small intestine, 2-6 hours; and colon, 6-72 hours.

43
Q

pharynx

A

throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose

44
Q

portal vein

A

large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines

45
Q

protease

A

enzyme that digests protein

46
Q

pulp

A

soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels

47
Q

pyloric sphincter

A

ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. Normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it

48
Q

pylorus

A

distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum

49
Q

rectum

A

last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus

50
Q

rugae

A

ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach

51
Q

saliva

A

digestive juice produced by salivary glands

52
Q

salivary glands

A

parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands

53
Q

sigmoid colon

A

fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum

54
Q

sphincter

A

circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening

55
Q

stomach

A

muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach’s parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section)

56
Q

triglycerides

A

fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol

57
Q

uvula

A

soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate.

58
Q

villi

A

microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.