What are signs of fetal alcohol syndrome?
Distinctive facial features, including small eyes, an exceptionally thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose, and a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper lip
Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers
Slow physical growth before and after birth
Vision difficulties or hearing problems
Small head circumference and brain size
Heart defects and problems with kidneys and bones
How do you convert mm to caliber?
Multiply by 4 for example, a 9mm is equal to a 36 caliber
What is the mechanism of death with low voltage electrocution? High voltage?
Low voltage requires direct contact with charge, death by V Fib
High voltage does not require direct contact, death due to electrothermal injury or respiratory failure
What is the mechanism of death in methanol poisoning?
ACIDOSIS, not respiratory depression
What are some signs of arsenic poisoning?
Small intestines can have pseudomembranes
FATTY DEPOSITS IN HEART, LIVER, AND KIDNEYS!
Peripheral neuropathy of both sensory and motor in both acute and chronic poisoning!
How stable are the following in vitreous? 1) HCG 2) Cortisol 3) Thyroxin 4) TSH
1) stable 2) stable 3) decreases postmortem but can be used to diagnose hyperthyroid 4) can be used to detect hypothyroid
What percent of all deaths show agonal aspiration?
What is the significant of petechiae in the epiglottis?
Reduction of what amount of oxygen by displacement of oxygen by intert gases produces unconsciousness in seconds and death in minutes?
Reduction to less than 25% of normal (5-6% by volume of oxygen)
Toxins such as cobalt and adriamycin have been associated with what heart issue?
Dilated (constrictive) cardiomyopathy
Why is bridging of LAD usually benign?
The vessel is compressed during systole and nearly all coronary blood flow to the left ventricle occurs during diastole
Most common family of drugs used in suicides?
Thin film of SAH and SDH localized to the occipital lobes due to?
Decomp/lividity Rest of the brain will not have hemorrhage!
What is the most information that can be deduced about a stab wound?
maximum width of the blade, an approximation of the length of the blade, and whether it is single edged
What speed is a rifle considered high velocity?
Most deaths due to anaphylactic shock with therapeutic agents is due to?
What is amount of pressure needed to compress: 1) jugular vein 2) carotid artery 3) trachea 4) vertebral artery
1) 4.4 lbs of pressure 2) 11 lbs of pressure 3) 33 lb of pressure 4) 66 lbs of pressure
In a shotgun wound, how far before the wad does not enter the body anymore yet there may be a mark on the skin adjacent to entrance?
In venous air embolism, how much air delivered rapidly is necessary to cause death?
between 75 and 250 cm3
Fat emboli are associated with:
1) Long bone or pelvic fractures
2) acute pancreatitis
3) extensive burns
5) decompression sickness
6) parenteral infusion of lipids
7) reaming and nailing procedures of long bone fractures
What is the most common scenario of venous air embolism during therapeutic or surgical procedure?
Craniotomy in the sitting position
Here, air emboli occur in 21 to 29% of all craniotomies and 40% of all occipital craniotomies
What is the most common coronary artery anomaly?
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva
What are the two most common suffocating gases?
Methane and carbon dioxide
With guns, what speed is considered low velocity? High velocity?
Low velocity 650-1400 ft/sec
High velocity 2400 - 4000 ft/sec
What type of necrosis is caused by acid burns? Alkaline burns?
Alkaline burns are worse and cause liquefactive necrosis with edema
Acid burns cause coagulative necrosis and the wounds are usually hard and dry
Hydrofluoric acid causes the worst injury of the acids
What is the most popular and most commonly fired cartridge in the US?
What procedure should be performed in all cases of meningitis?
Dissection of the middle ear to see if this is the source
Can carbon monoxide pass from materal to fetal blood?
Yes, the final concentration of CO Hb is 10 percent higher than the maternal concentration
With shotguns, what are the distances to get: 1) scalloped hole 2) pellets start to separate 3) individual pellets
1) 3 ft 2) 4 ft 3) 9-10 ft
What is the most common abdominal organ injured in blunt force injury cases?