Flashcards in Disease, Prevention, and Treatment of Viral Infections Deck (14):
Only what kind of viruses produce polykaryon/syncitia formation?
What kind of viral infection can produce intranuclear inclusions?
What does a Tzanck test look for?
DNA occlusions and syncytia
What is the prodrome of a viral infection?
Early symptoms that manifest prior to the onset of clinical disease that are not always easily recognizable
What is herd immunity?
A form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection to those who ate not immune/vaccinated
What phase of the viral life cycle do anti-virals target?
What is acyclovir used to treat?
HSV-1 and HSV-2; Decreases severity of VZV if used within 24 h of rash onset
What is ganciclovir used to treat?
What is cidofovir used to treat?
HSV infections resistant to acyclovir
What biochemical activity must happen to acyclovir before it is active? How is this accomplished?
It must be phosphorylated 3 times; The first must come from the viral enzyme thymidine kinase- the next two can be done by regular cellular kinases
What is the mechanism of acyclovir triphosphate?
It can act as a competitive inhibitor for viral DNA pol OR acts as a chain inhibitor in DNA synthesis
What are the major adverse effects of ACV?
Renal insufficiency and neurotoxicity
What is ganciclovir's mechanism of action?
Following phosphorylation by the viral phosphotransferase, gangciclovir monophosphate preferntially inhibits viral DNA synthesis by competative inhibition of viral DNA pol