PHARM A56c: Antifungal Therapy Flashcards Preview

1 Foundations of Disease and Therapy > PHARM A56c: Antifungal Therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in PHARM A56c: Antifungal Therapy Deck (21):
1

What are the major 3 components of the fungal cell wall?

Mannoproteins, B-(1,3)- and B-(1,6)-glucans, and chitin

2

What is the main component of the fungal cell membrane?

Ergosterol

3

What class of anti-fungal drugs are membrane-disrupting agents?

Polyenes

4

What is the mechanism of action of polyenes? What is the prototype of this class?

Binds sterols (preferentially ergosterol), forming a pore that disrupts osmotic integrity of cell membrane- FUNGICIDAL

5

True or False: Polyenes penetrate into CSF, vitreous humor, and amniotic fluid.

False: they do NOT penetrate

6

What is Amphotericin B used for?

Serious systemic infections and fungal meningitis

7

What are the major complications of polyene/ amphotericin B?

Nephrotoxicity

8

What classes of antifungal drugs inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol?

Azoles and allylamines

9

What enzymatic step is inhibited by Allylamines (terbinafine)?

The conversion of squalene to squalene epoxide by qualene epoxidase

10

What enzymatic step is inhibited by azoles?

The conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol by 14-alpha-sterol demethylase

11

What are the two major classes of azoles and what is the prototype of each?

Imidazoles (ketoconazole) and triazoles (fluconazole)

12

What enzymes are especially important in drug-drug interactions with azoles?

Cytochrome P450

13

What are the adverse effects associated with azoles?

Hepatotoxicity, hypertension, visual impairment, and inhibition of testosterone synthesis

14

Which antifungal is contraindicated for cardiac patients?

Itraconazole

15

What adverse effects are associated with terbinafine?

Taste disturbances; hepatotoxicity

16

What class of antifungals are glucan synthesis inhibitors? What is the prototype?

Echinocandins; Micafungin

17

What is the mechanism of action of micafungin?

Inhibit beta-1,3 glucan synthesis- Fungicidal

18

What is the mechanism of action of flucytosine?

Block fungal, DNA, RNA, and Protein synthesis--- fungistatic

19

What is the mechanism of griseofulvin?

Fungal spindle disrupter (mitosis inhibitor)-- Fungistatic

20

Where does griseofulvin accumulate in the body?

Keratin precursor cells

21

What are the adverse affects of griseofulvin?

Severe teratogenic effects and confusion