what is an exmaple of primordial prevention?
aims to minimize future hazards to health, inhibit the establishment of factors known to increase risk
(environmental, economic, social, behavioural, cultural).
What is secondary prevention?
Secondary prevention aims at
early diagnosis and treatment in its
early stages before it results in morbidity
(e.g. screening, medication for osteoporosis), or to prevent recurrence (e.g. treatment to reduce risk of recurrence of a heart attack)
what is tertiary prevention?
Tertiary prevention aims to reduce the negative impact of existing disease and reduce complications (e.g. blindness from diabetes, rehabilitation after spinal injury or amputation
What kind of prevention is the following example?
"Fluoridination of water?"
Primary prevention to prevent tooth decay
What is primary prevention
Primary prevention aims at lowering the occurrence of disease (i.e. preventing new cases of disease, e.g. immunisation)
describe the differeneces between individual level, environmental and societal level prevention programs
ACTIONS Reducing childhood poisoning
Individual level: Education and public awareness
Environmental level: Development of childproof containers e.g. for medicines, household cleaners
Societal level: Legal requirement for childproof packaging of medicines
give examples of passive/active strategies at prevention
what is the differnece betwen passive and active interventions?
passive= protect everyone, require little or no cooperation or action on part of individuals
active = interventions that require individual action for the intervention to be effective
what is the rationale for population strategy?
•The higher the level of cholesterol or of blood pressure or of the total estimated risk, the higher the risk of an event
•Only a small proportion of the population are in highest risk group. Treating them is important clinically but will make little impact on population burden of disease
•Each individual benefits to small extent but adds to large benefit for the population
Analogy of larger profits in high turnover, fast food restaurant vs. expensive restaurant – latter has larger profit / customer but fewer clients, so lower total profit
what are the advantages and disadvantages for using primary prevention and a population strategy?
•Large potential for population
•Small benefits to individuals
•Poor motivation of subject & of health professionals
what are the advantages and disadvantages of using a high risk strategey and primary prevention?
•Tailored to the individual, with high professional & patient motivation
•Benefit-to-risk ratio is favourable i.e. potential for benefit outweighs risk of adverse events
•High screening costs to identify those at high risk
•Effects are temporary and limited
Behaviourally inappropriate i.e. the person is asked to behave differently to most people in that society
which levels of prevention contribute the most to health and wellbeing of the whole population?
primordial and primary prevention
What type of prevention is the following example?
"detection and treatment of blood pressure"
secondary prevention -