Diseases of the Thoracic Aorta Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diseases of the Thoracic Aorta Deck (28)
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1

What are the RISK FACTORS for ATHEROSCLEROSIS?

1) Smoking
2) Hypercholesterolaemia
3) Hypertension
4) Diabetes Mellitus
5) Family History
6) Male > Female

2

What are the possible COMPLICATIONS of atherosclerosis?

1) Stroke
2) Myocardial Infarction
3) Aneurysm

3

What is an ANEURYSM?

1) Localised Enlargement of an Artery
2) Due to Weakening of the Vessel Wall

4

What are the different TYPES of aneurysm?

1) Saccular/Berry
2) Fusiform (Bilateral Dilatation)
3) False
4) Dissecting

5

What are potential CAUSES of an aneurysm?

1) HTN
2) Atherosclerosis
3) Smoking
4) Collagen Abnormalities/Connective Tissue Disorders, i.e. Marfan's
5) Trauma
6) Infection

6

What are some of the SYMPTOMS of a THORACIC aneurysm?

*Can be Asymptomatic

1) Dyspnoea
2) Dysphagia
3) Dysphonia
4) Chest Pain - Sharp and Radiating to the Back, between the Shoulder Blades (If Dissection)

7

What are the SIGNS of a THORACIC aneurysm?

1) Pulsatile Mass
2) Hypotension

8

What is the MOST COMMONLY USED thoracic aortic dissection CLASSIFICATION?

Stanford

9

Where in the thoracic aorta would a TYPE A dissection occur?

Ascending Aorta

10

Where in the thoracic aorta would a TYPE B dissection occur?

Anywhere EXCEPT the Ascending Aorta

11

What are the SYMPTOMS of an AORTIC DISSECTION?

1) Severe Chest Pain - Tearing and Radiating to the Back, between the Shoulder Blades
2) Syncope

12

What are some of the SIGNS of an AORTIC DISSECTION?

1) < or Absent Peripheral Pulses
2) < or > BP
3) Soft Early Diastolic Murmur
4) Pulmonary Oedema

13

What INVESTIGATIONS would be used to DIAGNOSE an AORTIC DISSECTION?

1) CXR
2) Echo
3) ECG
4) CT Scan

14

What would be the likely FINDINGS on CXR for aortic dissection?

1) Widened Mediastinum/Cardiomegaly
2) Pulmonary Oedema

15

What would be a likely FINDING on ECG for aortic dissection?

Inferior ST Elevation

16

What would be a likely FINDING on ECHO for aortic dissection?

1) Aortic Regurgitation
2) Dilatation of Aortic Root

17

What would be the TREATMENT for a TYPE A aortic dissection?

Surgery

18

What would be the TREATMENT for a TYPE B aortic dissection?

1) Meticulous BP Control
2) Na+ Nitroprusside + Beta Blocker

19

What is a possible INFLAMMATORY aetiology of aortic disease?

Takayasu Arteritis

20

What is TAKAYASU ARTERITIS?

1) Granulomatous Vasculitis
2) Often Affecting the Aorta and its Main Branches
3) Causing Stenosis; Thrombosis; Aneurysms, etc

21

Give 3 potential CONGENITAL CAUSES of aortic aneurysm:

1) Marfan Syndrome
2) Bicuspid Aortic Valve
3) Coarctation of the Aorta

22

What are the TREATMENTS for Takayasu Arteritis?

1) Steroids
2) Surgery

23

What are the 3 TYPES of COARCTATION of the AORTA?

1) Pre-Ductal
2) Ductal
3) Post-Ductal

24

Where in the aorta does COARCTATION OCCUR?

Stenosis Close to where the Ductus Arteriosus Inserts (Ligamentum Arteriosum)

25

What is the MOST COMMON FORM of coarctation in ADULTS?

Post-Ductal

26

What are the COMMON SIGNS of coarctation in ADULTS?

1) Hypertension in the Upper Extremities
2) < Pulses in the Lower Extremities
*Radio-Femoral Delay
3) Rib-Notching (Seen on CXR)
4) Cold Legs

27

What are the SYMPTOMS of coarctation in INFANCY?

1) Heart Failure
2) Failure to Thrive

28

What INVESTIGATIONS would be used to DIAGNOSE coarctation?

1) CXR - Rib Notching
2) Cardiac MRI - Location of the Coarctation