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COTA Psychiatric/Cognitive Disorders > Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders Deck (60):


meaningless imitation of another person's movements



immobility or rigidity



repetition of fixed patterns of movement and speech


Psychomotor Agitation

excessive motor and cognitive activity, usually nonproductive and in response to inner tension


Psychomotor Retardation

decreased or slowed motor and cognitive activity



state of restlessness characterized by an urgent need for movement, usually a side effect of med



speech that is delayed in reaching the point and contains excessive or irrelevant details



abrupt changing of focus to a loosely associated topic


Perserveration of Thought

a persistent focus on a previous topic or behavior after a new topic/behavior has been introduced


Poverty of Speech

limited in amount, one-word answers


Poverty of Content of Speech

speech that is adequate in amount but conveys little info due to vagueness, lack of specificity, and limited detail


Perserveration of Speech

continued, persistent repetition of a work or phrase, often in response to different stimuli or different questions


Nominal Aphasia

in ability to name objects



inability to process sensory info



A. two (or more) of the following :
1. delusions
2. hallucinations
3. disorganized speech
4. grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
5. negative symptoms

B. disturbance in one or more areas of func

C. continuous signs for at least 6 months including at least 1mo of symps from A


Paranoid Schizophrenia

Preoccupation with one or more delusions of persecution or grandeur. auditory hallucinations


Schizophreniform Disorder

The pt meets the criteria for schizophrenia; however, the episode lasts more than 1mo but less than 5mo req for schizophrenia dx


Schizoaffective Disorder

uninterrupted period of illness where there is
a major mood episode (depressive, manic, mixed) concurrent with criterion A of schizophrenia


Delusional Disorder

nonbizarre delusions with the absence of other criterion A symps of schizophrenia


Brief Psychotic Disorder

A. presence of 1 or more of following symptoms
1. delusions
2. hallucinations
3. disorganized speech
4. grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior

B. duration at least 1 day but less than 1 month

C. not better explained by another disorder


Schizo Spectrum Disorders Functional Impact

deficits in processing sensory info making interaction w/environment difficult

lost or failed to develop social and communication skills

deficits in cognitive func due to thought disorders and difficulties with performance of basic skills with all areas of occupation


Traditional Antipsychotic Meds

used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and acute mania, agitation, and other conditions.

Not freq used, but still prescribed

Side effects include: dry mouth, muscle stiffness, muscle cramping, tremors, weight-gain, parkinsonism, dystonias, and akathisia.


Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

an autonomic emergency leading to increased b/p, tachycardia, sweating, convulsions, and coma. complication of typical antipsychotics


Tardive Dyskinesia

caused by long-term use or high-dose of antipsychotic meds characterized by abnormal, involuntary, irregular movements of the head, limbs, and trunk, often presenting as slow, rhythmic, automatic, stereotyped movements


Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism

an antipsychotic caused disorder that presents with muscle stiffness, cogwheel rigidity, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and drooling


Atypical Antipsychotics

used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and as an adjunct in major depressive disorder.

Side effects vary. Can include dry mouth, blurry vision, sedation, dizziness, hypotension, insomnia, confusion


Manic Episode

A. period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood lasting at least 1wk

B. 3 or more of following symptoms
1. grandiosity
2. decreased need for sleep
3. more talkative than usual or pressured speech
4. flight of ideas or racing thoughts
5. distractibility
6. increase in goal-directed activity or
psychomotor agitation
7. increased risky behaviors


Bipolar I Disorder

One or more manic episodes

May be combined with depressive episodes


Bipolar II Disorder

One or more major depressive episodes

There must be at least one hypomanic episode



at least 2yrs of a depressed episode, most days, with depressive symps that are not severe enough to meet criteria for major depressive episode


Cyclothymic Disorder

at least 2yrs with numerous periods of hypomanic and depressive symps that do not meet criteria for a manic or major depressive episode


Hypomanic Episode

Symptoms are same as manic episode but not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational func or to req hospitalization


Treatment for Manic Episode


Mood Stabilizer
Side effects- excessive thirst, tremors, excessive urination, wt gain, nausea, diarrhea, and cognitive impairment

Side effects- dizziness, drowsiness, ataxia, wt gain, sedation


OT Considerations For Manic Intervention

Activities that provide release of excess energy

Periods between manic episodes should be used to educate


Major Depressive Disorder

A. 5 or more of following symptoms during same 2
week period
1. depressed mood most of day nearly every day
2. markedly diminished interest or pleasure
3. significant weight loss/ gain or decrease/increase in
4. insomnia or hypersomnia
5. psychomotor agitation/retardation
6. fatigue, loss of energy
7. feelings of worthlessness or guilt
8. diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness
9. recurrent thoughts of death/suicide (with or w/o plan)


Panic Attacks

abrupt surge of intense fear or intense discomfort that reaches a peak within 10min, with 4 or more or the
following symptomsr:
1. palpitations
3. trembling or shaking
4. sensations of SOB or smothering
5. feelings of choking
6. chest pain or discomfort
7. nausea or abdominal distress
8. feeling dizzy, unsteady, light-headed, faint
9. chills or heat sensations
10. paresthesias
11. derealization or depersonalization
12. fear of losing control or “going crazy”
13. fear of dying



anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available if needed

situations are avoided or endured w/anxiety about having a panic attack


Panic Disorder

recurrent unexpected panic attacks

at least one of the attacks has been followed
by 1 month or more of one or both of the
1. persistent concern or worry about having
another attack or consequences
2. significant maladaptive change in behavior
related to attacks


Generalized Anxiety Disorder

excessive anxiety and worry occurring more days than not for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities


Considerations for OT Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

skills training and cognitive behavioral approaches may reduce avoidant behavior

relaxation and stress management skills

graded actv that promote self-efficacy


Schizoid Personality Disorder

dx in pt who display a lifelong pattern of social withdrawal

seen by others as isolated, eccentric, lonely



appear odd or strange in their thinking and behavior

magical thinking, peculiar ideas, illusions, and derealization


Borderline Personality Disorder

exp unstable affect, mood, behavior, relationships, and self-image

fear of real or imagined abandonment leads to frantic efforts to avoid it

re-current self-destructive or self-mutilation behavior carried out or threatened


Global Deterioration Scale

1 No cognitive decline

2 Very mild cognitive decline (Forgetfulness)
Deficit in word finding

3 Mild cognitive decline (Early confusional)
Decreased performance in demanding employment

4 Mod cognitive decline (Late confusional)
Decreased ability to perform complex tasks (finances)
Cannot manage home w/o assist

5 Mod severe cognitive decline (Early dementia)
Needs assist choosing proper attire
Poor judgement

6 Severe cognitive decline (Mid dementia)
May be incontinent; needs assist dressing and proper

7 Very severe cognitive decline (Late dementia)
Freq no speech, only grunting
Loss of ability to walk, sit up, hold head up, smile
Req assist for toileting and feeding


Eating Disorder Considerations for OT

Building trust is essential to effective intervention

Practitioner must be honest, supportive, and gently confrontational

Eval and intervention must include the needs the eating disorder fulfilled

Non-food related ares of interest and meaningful purposeful actvs should be pursued

Ed about nutrition and healthy leisure actv


Autism Crieteria

Persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple domains

Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. This may include: fixed routines, ritualized patterns, altered sensitivity and reactivity to sensory input

Symptoms present early in life ( 12-24 months or earlier) and cause significant impairment in social and/or occupational functioning.


Autism Signs in Infants

Low muscle tone

Hates baths, dressing or diaper changes

Startles easily when touched

Does not calm when held; may prefer to lie in the crib

Stiffens when picked up


Characteristics of Autism

Low muscle tone

Interested in parts of toys or mechanical objects

Seems unaware of surroundings

Does not make eye contact

Does not relate to others

Sleep problems


Fixates on one object


Children with Autism may...

May have restricted areas of higher functioning, and difficulty generalizing

May have self aggressive behaviors

May have seizure disorders and/or ADHD

May have difficulty with visual and auditory processing

Have difficulty with changes of routines and environments, difficulty transitioning between activities


Children Autism Deficits in Function

Poor gross and fine motor coordination

Decreased orientation in space and decreased balance

Difficulty processing tactile and proprioceptive activity

Level of attention and arousal are less than optimal, affecting learning and performance

Limited repertoire of coping skills


Rett Syndrome

rare genetic neurological and developmental disorder that affects the way the brain develops. It occurs almost exclusively in girls.

develop normally at first, but after about 6 months of age, they lose skills they previously had — such as the ability to crawl, walk, communicate or use their hands.

stereotypical movements such as handwringing and licking, biting, and slapping of fingers


Autism Spectrum Considerations for OT

Develop sensorimotor, social interaction, vocational readiness, and community integration

Provide adaptive and positioning equip to facilitate func

Rett's synd may req adaptions to maintain the integrity of skin, such as dynamic elbow splinting to inhibit hand-to-mouth patterns


ADHD Considerations for OT

Environmental mods and actv adaptions to structure the school or work environment

Training in social skills and self-management

Interventions to promote sensory modulation


OCD Eval

Individuals with OCD frequently experience time consuming compulsions having to do with thoughts and/or actions.

Limiting the time available to answer questions will help these individuals structure their time and be able to more effectively complete the evaluation process.


Cooperative Groups for Personality Disorders

Because the underlying issues for most personality disorders are related to inaccurate perceptions of the self and others, this treatment approach should directly address these problems.

A cooperative group format offers a wide variety of feedback about the specific interactions that occur. The group activity should be based on a central goal of reducing misperceptions.


IQ Range 55-69

indicates mild intellectual disability

Ability to learn academic skills at 3rd-7th grade lvl; able to work w/min support

Min support req


IQ Range 40-54

Indicates mod intellectual disability

Able to learn academic skills to at least 2nd grade lvl and perform unskilled as well as some skilled work tasks

focus acquiring indepen in routine daily skills and skills necessary to perform in desired occupations with supports and structures

limited support and assist may be req in specific occupational performance areas on a daily basis

Supervised living is req


IQ Range 25-39

indicates severe intellectual disability

Focus on communication skills and some basic health habits

Assist is req for performance of most tasks in all performance areas on a daily basis

Supervised living is req

Significant impairments in motor func and physical develop are typical


IQ 25 OR Below

Assist and ongoing supervision are req for basic survival skills

Significant impairments in motor func and physical develop are typical

Supervised living is req


Discharge Activity Recommendations for Anxiety Disorders

Gross motor activities, involving either aerobic exercise or stretching and relaxation, can help to reduce the physical symptoms associated with anxiety.