Flashcards in Disorders of Lung Inflation - Atelectasis and Pleural Effusion Deck (35)
What two disorders are considered lung inflation problems?
Atelectasis and Pleural Effusion
What is Atelectasis?
Atelectasis is a structural collapse of a small part of the lung which impedes it from filling with air.
How many different types of atelectasis is there? What are they called?
There are three different types of atelectasis:
1. Obstructive/Resorptive atelactasis
2. Compression atelectasis
3. Contration atelectasis
Describe Obstructive/Resorptive Atelectasis?
Occurs when there is a local airway obstruction which causes air to become trapped. The trapped air is then absorbed into the capilaries leading to local collapse of the blocked structure.
What is an example of something which might block an airway in Obstructive/Resorptive Atelectasis? What will occur if the obstruction is resolved?
Mucus is something which might block an airway. If the obstruction is removed, the collapse will resolve itself.
What is Compression Atelectasis? What can cause compression atelectasis?
Compression Atelectasis is a collapse from external pressure of a portion of the lung. A tumor could cause compression atelectasis.
What is Contraction Atelectasis?
Contraction atelectasis is caused when scar tissue formation with-in the alveoli contracts leading to lung collapse.
What are the manifestations of Atelectasis?
Dyspnea, Tachypnea, Decreased Chest Expansion, Tachycardia
Why would someone suffereing from Atelectasis present with dyspnea?
Their lung capacity is decreased.
Why would someone suffereing from Atelectasis present with tachypnea?
Tachypnea is a compenary mechanism due to the decreased ventillation capacity of the lungs.
How is Atelectasis diagnosed?
Patient presentation, Chest X-ray, CT, Bronchoscopy.
How is Atelectasis treated?
Atelectasis is treated by dealing with the cause. Removal of tumors, or mucus plugs. Once the cause is dealt with the area will inflate again.
What is Pleural Effusion?
Pleural effusion is fluid accumulation in the pleural space.
What is another name for pleural effusion?
What is the singular form of pleural?
What is transcapillary exchange?
Transcapillary exhange is the movement of fluid and substances between blood and interstitial fluid.
In pleural effusion, fluid moves from _____ into the ____ _____?
Blood into the Pleural Space.
Pleural Effusion is due to ?
Abnormal seepage and/or drainage.
In pleural effusion, fluid seepage referes to fluid movment to ____?
In pleural effusion, fluid drainage referes to fluid ____?
Returning to vasculature.
What is exudate?
Inflammation fluid with high protein count.
What is transudate?
Transudate is extravascular fluid with low protein count, non-inflammation fluid made up primarily fo macrophages, lymphocytes and mesothelial cells.
What is the difference between transudate and exudate fluid in a pleural effusion?
Transudate is fluid pushed through the capillary due to high pressrue within the capillary. Exudate is fluid that leaks around the cells of the capillaries caused by inflammation.
What is empyema?
Empyema is purulent thick pus in the pleural space.
What is hemothorax?
Hemothorax is a type of pleural effusion in which blood accumulates in the pleural cacity.
What is chylothorax?
Chylorthorax is the accumulation of lymph formed in the digestive tract, called chyle, with-in the pleural cavity.
What is the etiology of Pleural Effusions?
Usually caused by Congestive Heart Failure. Can also be caused by infection, Cancer, or pulmonaory infarct (Ischemia).
What type of cough will an individual with a pleural effusion have? Which disorder will have the opposite cough?
A dry cough. A patient with pulmonary edema will have a wet, productive cough.
What is the Pathophysiology of pleural effusions?
Fluid enters the pleural space through parietal capillaries and drains into parietal lymphatics. Fluid entry exceeds drainage resulting in pleural effusion.