Flashcards in Genitourinary Disorders - Female Deck (80)
What are the 5 disorders covered under female genitourinary disorders?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Breast Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer, and Cervical Cancer.
What is PID?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is inflammation of the reproduction tract beyond the cervix. It included inflammation of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries.
What is the term to describe inflammation of the uterus?
What is the term to describe inflammation of the tubes?
What is the term to describe inflammation of the ovary?
What is the etiology of PID?
PID is a bacterial infection, known as polymicrobial, because it can be caused by several types of microorganisms. Example of the microbes that can cause PID are chlamydia, gonococci, staphylococci, streptococci. Pelvie Inflammatory Disease can be caused by an untreated bacteria infection. 10% of cases are gonorrhea, and 20% chlamydia. Most cases are typically sexually transmitted.
What is a pyogenic bacteria?
A pyogenic bacteria is one which produces pus.
What is the pathophysiology of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
Microbes enter the cervix when dilated. The endometrium provides nutrient material for the bacterium as it progesses upward towards the fallopian tubes. There is rapid proliferation as the endometrium sloughs. The infection ascends from the uterus, into tubes, and then ovaries.
What is a common complication of PID?
Pelvic Abscess. The infection can move into the body cavity and can lead to peritonitis.
Why is E. Coli often a cause of PID and UTI infections?
Due to the anatomical proximity of the anus to the vagina.
What is Parametritis?
Parametritis is an inflammation of the parametrium (connective tisue adjacent to the uterus). It is an inflammation of the ligaments around the uterus.
What are the manifestations of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
Lower abdominal pain, Heavy purulent vaginal discharge, Dyspareunia, Adnexal tenderness, Fever, and Leukocytosis.
What three manifestations of PID are indicative of an infection in the reproductive tract?
Heavy purulent vaginal discharge, Fever, and Adnexal tenderness.
What is adnexal tenderness?
Ad = toward, Nexal = uterus. "Tenderness palpating around the uterus.
When is vaginal bleeding abnormal in a post-menopausal patient?
Any vaginal bleeding is abnormal in a post-mentrual patient.
When is vaginal bleeding abnormal in a pre-menstrual patient?
Any bleeding outside of normal mensies is abnormal in a pre-menstrual patient.
When is vaginal bleeding abnormal in a woman during menstration?
When the bleeding is heavy, or prolonged.
What is a very serious complication of PID if not treated. This can be particularly devestating for the patient.
The patient can become infertile if PID is not quickly treated. Infertility can arise because all parts of the reproductive tract are affected and can become scarred. The ovary releases eggs, the tub is required for fertilization, and the uterus is needed for adhesion.
How is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease diagnosed?
Presentation (purulent discharge, adnexal tenderness, fever), Increased Eurthrocyte Sedimentary Rate, Increased CRP, Laparoscopy.
What is the purpose of laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy looks for signs of scarring in th reproductive tract.
What is Eyrthrocyte Sedimentary Rate?
ESR is a test which measures the rate in which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour. It is a common hematology test that measures non-specific inflammation.
What is the treatment for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
Multiple broad spectrum Abx (90% success rate). Evaluate and treat partner. Surgery may be required for abcesses or for scar tissue removal.
What is the most common form of cancer in women?
Is breast cancer a major cause of cancer deaths?
Is breast cancer restricted to women?
No. However, it is extremely rare in men.
What are the risks and etiology surrounding breast cancer?
Increased age, Genetic predisposition, Hereditary, Hormonal factors
What percentage of cases are hereditary? Which genes and chromosomes are affected?
5-10% of breast cancer is due to a hereditary etiology. Breast Cancer Gene 1 on Chromosome 17 & Breast Cancer Gene 2 on Chromosome 13 are both implicated.
What are the four hormonal factors which increase the risk of breast cancer?
Estrogen for menopause, Early menarche, Late menopause, Nulliparity.
Why is etrogen for menopause a risk factor of breat cancer?
Estrogen is given for hot flashes and menopause. However, exogenous estrogen (hormone therapy) is shown to increase the risk of cancer particularly if the therapy last longer than 2 years.