Diuretics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diuretics Deck (24):
1

Name 6 common nephrotoxic drugs

ACE Inhibitors
Penicillins
NSAID's
Metformin
Cyclosporin A
Aminglycosides (gentamycin etc)

2

What 4 drugs are indicated for heart failure?

A- ACE inhibitor (eg Lisinopril)
B- B blocker
C- Candesartan
D- loop & thiazide diuretic, Spironolactone (for its anti-aldosterone effects)

3

Why is Spironolactone indicated in heart failure?

not for its diuretic effects but for its anti-aldosterone effects

4

What 5 drugs are indicated in hypertension?

Thiazide diuretics
Spironolactone
(loop diuretics)
ACE Inhib/ARB
B blockers

5

What two drugs are indicated in decompensated liver disease (with regards to oedema)?

Spironolactone
Loop diuretics

6

What is the mechanism of Loop Diuretics?

Block NKCC2 in the thick ascending limb of loop of henle

7

Name two loop diuretics

Furosemide
Bumetanide

8

Name a side effect of Furosemide

ototoxicity

9

Name a side effect of Bumetanide

Myalgia

10

Name 4 indications for Loop Diuretics

Oedema
Hypertension
Severe hypercalcaemia
Acute pulmonary oedema

11

What is the mechanism of action of Thiazide diuretics?

Blocks NaCl transporter (NCCT)

12

Name 2 positives of thiazide diuretics

better in osteoporosis
less potent

13

Name 3 side effects of thiazide diuretics

Hypokalaemia
Gout
Erectile Dysfunction

14

Why are thiazide diuretics better in osteoporosis?

As there is less reuptake of Na, there is less Na in the cell. Therefore leads to more movement of Na into the cell, in place of Ca (therefore more uptake of Ca)

15

Name 2 ENaC blockers

Amiloride
Triameterene

16

What is the mechanism of action of Amiloride?

block epithelial Na channel
Usually used alongside K losing diuretics

17

Name 2 potassium sparing diuretics

Spironolactone (aldosterone antagonist)
Amiloride (ENaC blocker)

18

Name two side effects of Spironolactone

hyperkalaemia
painful gynaecomastia

19

What is the best diuretic for primary hyperaldosteronism, ascites, oedema? Or when other drugs havent worked for HTN?

Spironolactone

20

Name 2 carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Acetazolamide
Methazolamide

21

Name 4 indications for Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors

glaucoma
epilepsy
altitude sickness
diuretics

22

Name 4 indications for Mannitol

Glaucoma
Cerebral oedema
Kidney failure with low urine output
To increase elimination toxins

23

Name 2 side effects of Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors

Metabolic acidosis (due to increased HC03- loss)
Risk of renal stones due to increased HCO3- in the urine

24

Through what mechanism can lithium have a diuretic effect?

inhibits ADH release