Flashcards in DNA Deck (18):
Explain the structure of DNA
DNA is made out of 2 strands called backbones that are coiled together to form a spiral called a double helix.
The 2 strands are joined together by complementary base pairs joined together with weak hydrogen bonds
Name the base pairs
What are the benefits of the human genome project?
• Identify genes that someone has that make them more likely to develop a cause disease.
• Help identify personalised medicines which would be most successful in treating each person specifically based on their DNA
What are the steps to extract DNA from fruit? (practical)
Gently crush fruit with salt and soap (detergent)
Add ice cold alcohol
Why do you crush the fruit gently and apply salt and soap (detergent)- DNA practical
Crush - opens up cells
Gently - doesn’t damage DNA
Salt - makes DNA stick together
Soap - breaks open cell
Why do you use a filter - DNA practical
Remove bits of cell
Why do you ice cold alcohol - DNA practical
Seperates out DNA from solution
What does homozygous mean?
2 of the same allele
What does recessive mean?
This allele has no effect if the dominant allele is present
What is a zygote?
It is formed when 2 gametes (sex cells) meet
What does dominant mean?
The allele which is stronger
What is heterozygous?
2 alleles that are different
What is the phenotype?
The physical characteristics that we see
What is the genotype?
The 2 alleles you have for a gene
What is a gene?
A section of a chromosone which controls a characteristic
What is the genotype for homozygous dominant?
BB - 2 capital letters
What is the genotype for heterozygous?
Bb - 1 capital letter 1 lower case letter