State the dental formula of the dog
I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 4/4 M 2/3 = 42
State the dental formula of the cat
I 3/3 C 1/1 PM 3/2 M 1/1 = 30
Describe the teeth and mouth of cats and dogs
Both have carnassials for shearing Cats have very sharp teeth Mobile tongue for mastication Cat tongue covered in papillae Dog chews more than cat Upper lip split by philtrum Parotid gland secretes digestive amylase into saliva and digestion begins in the mouth
Describe the digestive system
Oesophagus - muscular, peristalsis, stratified squamous epithelium
Stomach - simple, C-shaped, mixes and stores ingested food.
Small intestine - D,J,I. main site for digestion and nutrient absorption
Pancreas lies in U of duodenum
Liver has 4 lobes
Vestigial caecum - no significant function
Large Intestine - site of water reabsorption
Colon, Rectum and Anus
State Respiratory Anatomy in order
Nares- nasal cavity - turbinate bones - pharynx - larynx - trachea (C-shaped rings)- bronchi (complete rings) - bronchioles (no rings) - alveoli (dead-end sacs)
Right- 4 lobes
Left - 3 lobes
Cranial, Cardiac, Diaphragmatic (and accessory)
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles play role
Controlled by centres in brain.
Expiration is mostly passive
Describe reproduction in males
Scrotum houses 2 testes outside body
2 epididymis, 2 vas deferens, joins with urethra - penis.
Dogs have os penis running dorsal to urethra
Cats have a vestigial urethra running ventral to urethra
Cats have bulbourethral gland
Cat penis is shorter, points backwards and has barbs
Describe reproduction in females
2 ovaries, 2 infundibulum, 2 oviducts, 2 uterine horns, uterine body, cervix, vagina, vestibule (joins with urethral opening), vulva
Fertilisation occurs in infundibulum
Dogs are spontaneous ovulators; cats are induced ovulators. Both are multiparous.
How many vertebrae do they have?
C7 T13 L7 S3 (fused) C20-23 (depends on species)
Describe dog and cat skeleton key features
Mandible has 2 halves joined at mandibular symphysis.
Mandible joined to skull at temporomandibular joint.
Skull has 2 occipital condyles