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Flashcards in DOKO 3 - terms Deck (74):
1

Social Deviance

behavior that does not conform to basic cultural norms, any transgression of socially established norms

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Labeling Theory

Implication of the labeling definition:
1. deviance is not a norm violation unless powerful entity successfully designates the act as deviant and applies the label "deviant" successfully
2. society creates deviance
3. deviance is behavior that has real consequences

"deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sactions to an "offender". the deviant is one whom that label has successfully been applied. deviant behavior is behavior that ppl so label" - Becker

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Primary Deviance

the first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of "deviant" and thus influence how ppl think about and act toward you

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Secondary Deviance

subsequent acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label and people's expectations of you

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Stigma

a negative social label that not only changes others' behavior toward a person but also alters that person's own self-concept and social identity

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Labeling Theory

Conley: the belief that individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self-identity

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social control

mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals

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Formal Social Sanctions

mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals

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Informal Social Sanctions

the usually unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership; the unspoken rules of social life

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social integration

how well one is integrated into social group or community

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Social Regulation

number of rules guiding your daily life and, more specifically, what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day-to-day basis

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Egoistic Suicide

suicide that occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group

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altruistic suicide

suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration

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Anomie

sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; to little social regulation; normlessness

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Anomic Suicide

suicide that occurs as a result of insufficient social regulation

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Fatalistic Suicide

suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation

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Strain Theory

robert merton's theory that deviance occurs when society does not give all of its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals

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Conformist

individual who accepts both the goals and strategies that are considered socially acceptable to achieve those goals

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Innovator

social deviant who accepts socially acceptable goals but rejects socially acceptable means to achieve them

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Retreatist

one who rejects both the socially acceptable means and goals by completely retreating from or not participating in society

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Ritualist

individual who rejects socially defined goals but not the means

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Rebel

rejects both traditional goals and means and wants to alter or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated

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Broken Windows Theory of Deviance

theory explaining how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly; specifically, whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts

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Street Crime

crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty

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White Collar Crime

offense committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, or other institution

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Corporate Crime

a particular type of white collar crime committed by the officers (CEOS etc) of a corporation

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Labeling theory (lecture)

Implication of the labeling definition:
1. deviance is not a norm violation unless powerful entity successfully designates the act as deviant and applies the label "deviant" successfully
2. society creates deviance
3. deviance is behavior that has real consequences

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Statistical deviance

Deviance defined by the position an object of analysis occupies in a distribution.

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Internal social control

Social control exercised by the self.

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Informal social control

When self-control fails and we commit a deviant act, people with informal statuses may exercise social control on us.

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Formal social control

For certain deviant behaviors, formalized institutional responses provide the sanctions.

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Blue laws

Outdated laws based on religion, no longer enforced

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Anachronistic laws

Laws that no longer make sense with societal standards.

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Decent folk

People who adhere to middle-class norms, but also practice the Code of the Street

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Street folk

People who do not adhere to middle-class norms, but do adhere to the Code of the Street

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Racial spatial divide

A social arrangement in which substantial ethno-racial inequality in social and economic circumstances and power in society is combined with segregated and unequal residential locations across major racial and ethnic groups

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Equality of Opportunity

the idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone.

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Bourgeoisie Society

a society of commerce (modern capitalist society for ex) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive

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Equality of Condition

the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point

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Equality of Outcomes

the idea that each player must end up with the same amt regardless of the fairness of the "game"

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Free Rider Problem

the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope other will pull the extra weight

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Estate System








Upper Class
Middle Class
Social Mobility
Structural Mobility
Exchange Mobility
Status Attainment Model

a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility

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Caste System

a religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility

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Class system

an economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility

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Proletariat
Bourgeoisie

working class (proletartiat) and capitalist class (bourg)

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Contradictory Class Locations

people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between two "pure" classes

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Status Hierarchy System

a system of stratification based on social prestige

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Elite-Mass Dichotomy System

system of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold power in society

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Meritocracy

society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability and acheivemen

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Income

money recieved by a person for work, from transfers (gifts, inheritances, or gov assistance) or from returns on investments (cash flow)

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Wealth

a family's or individual's net worth (total assets minus debts)

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Socioeconomic Status

an individual's position in a stratified social order

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Social Stratification
& Three characteristics of stratification systems

The inequalities between groups in society

Social stratification systems share three characteristics
1.Rankings apply to categories of people that share a characteristic
2.Life chances are contingent on ranking
3.Ranks of different social categories change slowly over time

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Slavery

characterized by the framing of some humans as property

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Race

a category of people widely perceived as sharing socially significant physical characteristics such as skin color.
Race is a social construct.

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Racism

the belief that one racial group is superior to another.

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Polygeny

the belief that each race has a distinct origin.

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Pseudoscience

claims presented so that they appear scientific even though they lack supporting evidence and plausibility (Shermer 1997

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Wilson Thesis

Modern racism is not the driving force behind racial inequality. Instead, the historical legacy of racism and resulting differences in Social Class is what really matters.

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Hidden prejudice

Two-Faced Racism” focuses on disparities in front-stage and back-stage behavior.
Joe Faegan

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Front-stage behavior

actions that are visible to the audience-at-large. The actor knows they are being watched and acts accordingly.

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Back-stage behavior

performers are present, but the audience cannot see behind the curtain. Actors behave as if they were not being observed.

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Color-blind racism

the promotion of race-neutrality when it actually helps to maintain existing racial and ethnic inequality.

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Implicit bias

Tests the automatic association between mental representations of concepts in memory
Ego does not always report the truth.

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Ethnocentrism

belief that one's own culture or group is superior to others and the tendency to view all other cultures from the perspective of one's own

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Ontological Equality

philisophical and religious notion that all people are created equal

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Social Darwinism

the application of Darwinian ideas to society -- namely the evolutionary "survival of the fittest"

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Eugenics

literally meaning "well born" a pseudoscience that postulates that controlling the fertility of populations could influence inheritable traits passed on from gen to gen

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Nativism

the movement to protect and preserve indigenous land or culture from the allegedly dangerous and polluting effects of new immigrants

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One-Drop Rule

belief that "one drop" of black blood makes a person black, and concept that evolved from US laws forbidding miscegenation (interracial marriage)

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Miscegenation

interracial marriage

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Racialization

formation of a new racial identity by drawing ideological boundaries of difference around a formerly unnoticed group of people

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Ethnicity

one's ethnic quality of affiliation. it is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid and multiple and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per se.

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Symbolic Ethnicity

a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but of identifying with a past or future nationality. for later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.