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Flashcards in Drug List Deck (98):
1

What class of drug is Alendronate?

Bisphosphonate

2

What is Alendronate used to treat and how does it work?

Osteoperosis, decreases osteoclast activity and bone turnover

3

What is Atenolol used to treat and how does it work?

IHD, Heart Failure, Arrhythmia, Hypertension
Beta 1 selective - adrenergic antagonist, blocks noradreneline binding to beta receptor inhibiting symapthetic stimulation

4

What are the side effects of Atenolol?

Bronchospasm, bradycardia, cold peripheries, rash, dry eyes

5

What class of drug is Allopurinol?

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

6

What is Allopurinol used to treat and how does it work?

Used in Gout.
Works by preventing metabolism of xanthine to uric acid, this will lower plasma uric acid

7

What is the main side effect of Allopurinol?

Skin Rash

8

What is Atracurium used to treat and how does it work?

Used for Neuromuscular blockade
Works by competitively binding with cholinergic receptor sites to antagonise acetylcholine action.

9

What is Aminosalicylate used to treat?

Used in IBD (Chron's and UC)

10

What is the mechanism of action of aspirin?

Inhibits cyclo-oxygenase irreversibly by removal of acetyl-group which binds to COX-1 and inhibits thromboxane formation and hence platelet aggregation

11

What class of drug is Bendroflumethiazide?

Thiazide diuretic

12

What is Bendroflumethiazide used to treat and how does it work?

Used in hypertension, oedema and heart failure
Works by inhibiting Cl reabsorption in DCT, which results in increase Na, Cl and water excretion

13

What is a side effect of Bendroflumethiazide?

Raised uric acid --> gout

14

What class of drug is Cefuroxime?

Cephalosporin antibiotic (2nd generation) - Beta Lactam

15

What is Cefuroxime used to treat and how does it work?

Used in Gram negative and positive, Gonorrhoea, Haemophilus
Works by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis

16

What class of drug is Celecoxib?

NSAID

17

What is Celecoxib used to treat and how does it work?

Used in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and AS
Works by inhibiting COX-2 (selective) inhibits arachidonic acid to prostaglandin

18

What class of drug is cholamphenicol?

Antibiotic

19

What is Cholamphenicol used to treat and how does it work?

Used in conjunctivitis, meningitis, cholera
Bacteriostatic - inhibits protein synthesis

20

What type of drug is cyclosporin and what is it used for?

Immunosuppressant
Used in Rheumatod arthritis, psoriasis, Chrons

21

What class of drug is ciprofloxacin?

Fluoroquinolone antibiotic

22

What is Ciprofloxacin used to treat and how does it work?

Used for gram positives e.g. staph, strep
Inhibits DNA gyrase which prevents nucleic acid synthesis and replication

23

Which two drugs make up Co-amoxiclav (augmentin)?

Clavaulonic acid and amoxicillin

24

What is Co-amoxiclav used to treat and how does it work?

H.influenzea, N.gonorrhoea
Beta-lactamase inhibitor and inhibits penecillin binding proteins which inhibit cell wall synthesis

25

How does diamorphine work?

Inhibit release of pain transmitters in brain and spinal cord to produce analgesic affect

26

What are the side effects of diamorphine?

Addiction and dependence
Respiratory depression

27

How do you treat opioid induced respiratory depression?

Naloxone

28

When are somatostatin analogues used?

Acromegaly to increase inhibition of growth hormone

29

What is dalteparin used to treat and how does it work?

Used in PE, unstable angina, DVT prophylaxis
Inhibits formation of factor Xa and thus thrombin formation

30

What class of drug is dobutamine?

B-adrenergic receptor

31

What is Tamoxifen used to treat and how does it work?

Treatment in breast cancer, binds to oestrogen receptors which prevents oestrogen binding to receptors on cancer cells

32

What class of drug is Doxazosin?

Alpha-1 adrenoceptor

33

What is Doxazosin used to treat and how does it work?

Hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia
Blocks alpha 1- receptors on vascular smooth muscle which causes vasodilatation

34

What class of drug is ephedrine?

A and B adrenergic agonist

35

Which drug is used in the treatment of diabetes insipidus?

Desmopression - vasopressin analogue - releases vasopressin

36

What is ethinylestradiol used to treat?

(oestrogren) used in menstrual disorders, osteoporosis and prostate cancer

37

What class of drug is furosemide?

Loop diuretic

38

What is furosemide used to treat and how does it work?

Used in hypertension, oedema related HF
Blocks Na-K-Cl cotransporter in loop of hence which inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron

39

What are the side effects of furosemide?

Hypokalaemia, increased urination, dehydration

40

What is GTN spray used to treat and how does it work?

Used in angina and IHD
Dilate systemic veins to reduce venous return to the heart --> reduction of pre-load on the heart

41

What is a side effect of GTN?

Headaches, syncope, diziness

42

What class of drug is ipatropium?

muscarinic antagonist - long-acting bronchodilator

43

What is Ipatropium used to treat and how does it work?

Used in COPD and Asthma
Blocks acetylcholine binding to muscarinic receptors (M3) which reduces bronchoconstriction

44

What are the side effects of ipatropium?

Dry mouth, tachycardia, worsening of vision may cause glaucoma

45

How do aminosalicylates eg mesalazine work in UC?

Release 5 ASA which has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects

46

What is loperamide used to treat and how does it work?

Used in IBD and IBS
Slows down intestinal motility - anti-motility agent

47

What is metformin used to treat and how does it work?

Used in type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome
Works by decreasing hepatic glucose absorption and improves insulin sensitivity

48

What class of drug is methotrexate?

DMARD

49

What is methotrexate used to treat and how does it work?

Used rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis and chrons
works by inhibiting the enzyme which converts folic acid to FH4 which is required for DNA and protein synthesis

50

What class of drug is pilocarpine?

Muscarinic agonist

51

What is pilocarpine used for and suggest a side effect?

Stimulates salivation for patients having chemotherapy
Side effect = slows the heart

52

Where are M1 , M2 and M3 receptors found?

M1- Brain
M2- Heart
M3- Vascular smooth muscle

53

What class of drug is oxybutin?

Anti-muscarinic

54

What is Oxybutin used to treat and how does it work?

Used in urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence
Works by blocking ACh at muscarinic receptors and decreases muscle spasms of bladder

55

When is Ursodeoxycholic acid used?

Primary biliary cirrhosis ro reduce cholesterol absorption and dissolve cholesterol gallstones

56

When would you take colchicine?

Acute gout

57

What is ramipril used to treat and how does it work?

Used in hypertension, heart failure, stroke
Inhibit activity of ACE --> less angiotensin 2 produced --> relaxation of arterial smooth muscle.
Less bradykinin breakdown

58

What are the side effects of ramipril?

Angiotensin formation --> hypotension, renal failure
bradykinin formation--> dry cough

59

What is the treatment for a paracetamol overdose?

N-acetyl cysteine

60

Name 5 signs of paracetamol overdose (MARCH)?

Metabolic acidosis
Acute hepatitis (ALT >1000)
Renal failure (Cr >300)
Coagulopathy (INR>6.5)
Hyperglycaemia

61

What is Rifampacin used to treat and how does it work?

TB
Inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase thus nucleic acid synthesis

62

What is a side effect of Rifampicin?

Red urine and hepatitis

63

What is a side effect of isoniazid?

Neuropathy, hepatitis

64

What is a side effect of pyramizaidine?

Hepatitis, gout and rash

65

What is a side effect of ethambutol?

Optic neuritis

66

What class of drug is rivaroxiban and what is it used for?

Factor Xa - DOAC
Used as an anti-coagulant in PE, DVT

67

When would you use cholestyramine?

Reduce plasma cholesterol levels, pruritus in PBC

68

What is salmeterol used to treat and how does it work?

Beta 2 stimulation which causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle

69

What is the mechanism of clopidorgel?

Stops ADP binding to P2y12 which activates Gp IIb/IIIa receptors (required for fibrinogen mediated cross-linking) so prevents platelet aggregation

70

What class of drug is Sildefanil?

Phosphodiesterase (type V(5)) Inhibitor

71

What is Sildefanil used to treat and how does it work?

Used in erectile dysfunction
Inhibit PDE5 --> vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation

72

Which drug is used in acromegaly when pituitary tumour cannot be controlled with surgery?

Pegvisomant - growth hormone receptor antagonist

73

What class of drug is tamulosin?

Alpha blocker

74

What is tamulosin used for and how does it work?

Used in BPH
Selective alpha 1 antagonist - relaxation of smooth muscle --> less resistance to urinary flow

75

Suggest a side effect of tamulosin?

Allergy, hypotension, retrograde ejaculation

76

What is a severe complication of tramadol use?

Respiratory depression

77

What is the mechanism of tramadol?

Serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors. Enhance serotonin release

78

What class of drug is Valsartan?

ARB - angiotensin II receptor blocker

79

Name 3 side effects of valsartan?

Sympotmatic hypotension, angioedema, rash

80

What class of drug is verapamil?

Calcium channel blocker - phenylalkylamine

81

What is verapamil used to treat and how does it work?

Angina, hypertension, tachycardia
Works by blocking L-type calcium channels and preventing calcium from binding

82

Name 2 side effects of Verapamil?

Constipation, bradycardia, worsening of cardiac failure

83

Name 4 side effects of amiodarone?

Interstitial pneumonitis
Hyper/hypothyroidism
Sun sensitivity and slate grey discolouration of skin
Corneal micro-deposits and optic neuropathy
(Interaction with warfarin)

84

What is the mechanism of sacubitril?

Neprilysin inhibitor - BNP is broken down by neprolysin. If BNP not broken down --> increased renal excretion of sodium and water, increased vascular permiability, inhibit aldosterone

85

What is the mechanism of NOAC/DOAC?

Directly acts of factors 2 and 10

86

What class of drug is spironalactone?

Aldosterone antagonist

87

Name a drug which is a direct renin inhibitor?

Aliksren

88

What class of drug is amlodipine?

Dihydropyridines - calcium channel blocker

89

What are the side effects of dihydropyridines (nifedipine, amlodipine)?

Flushing, headache, oedema and paliptations

90

How does amlodipine work and what is it used to treat?

Used in hypertension
Is a peripheral arterial vasodilator - reduce after load on the heart

91

What is the mechanism of action of proton pump inhibitors?

Reduce gastric acid secretion by irreversibly inhibiting H+/K+ ATPAse in gastric parietal cells - suppresses gastric acid

92

How does H2 receptor antagonists eg Ranitidine work?

proton pump regulated by histamine which binds to H2 receptors on parietal cells to stimulate acid secretion - so blocks H2 receptor

93

When are antacids eg gaviscon used?

Symptomatic relief of heartburn and short term relief of dyspepsia

94

Which drug can be used in severe acne?

Isotrenion which is a retinoid

95

What is used in Type 2 diabetes to control blood glucose when metformin contraindicated?

Gliclazide

96

Which drug is used to treat primary hypothyroidism?

Levothyroxine - increases T4

97

Which drug is used as long term treatment in hyperthyroidism?

Carbimazole

98

How do selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors eg fluoxetine work?

Inhibit neuronal re-uptake of serotonin so increase bioavailiabity for transmission