Flashcards in Drug List Deck (98):
What class of drug is Alendronate?
What is Alendronate used to treat and how does it work?
Osteoperosis, decreases osteoclast activity and bone turnover
What is Atenolol used to treat and how does it work?
IHD, Heart Failure, Arrhythmia, Hypertension
Beta 1 selective - adrenergic antagonist, blocks noradreneline binding to beta receptor inhibiting symapthetic stimulation
What are the side effects of Atenolol?
Bronchospasm, bradycardia, cold peripheries, rash, dry eyes
What class of drug is Allopurinol?
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor
What is Allopurinol used to treat and how does it work?
Used in Gout.
Works by preventing metabolism of xanthine to uric acid, this will lower plasma uric acid
What is the main side effect of Allopurinol?
What is Atracurium used to treat and how does it work?
Used for Neuromuscular blockade
Works by competitively binding with cholinergic receptor sites to antagonise acetylcholine action.
What is Aminosalicylate used to treat?
Used in IBD (Chron's and UC)
What is the mechanism of action of aspirin?
Inhibits cyclo-oxygenase irreversibly by removal of acetyl-group which binds to COX-1 and inhibits thromboxane formation and hence platelet aggregation
What class of drug is Bendroflumethiazide?
What is Bendroflumethiazide used to treat and how does it work?
Used in hypertension, oedema and heart failure
Works by inhibiting Cl reabsorption in DCT, which results in increase Na, Cl and water excretion
What is a side effect of Bendroflumethiazide?
Raised uric acid --> gout
What class of drug is Cefuroxime?
Cephalosporin antibiotic (2nd generation) - Beta Lactam
What is Cefuroxime used to treat and how does it work?
Used in Gram negative and positive, Gonorrhoea, Haemophilus
Works by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis
What class of drug is Celecoxib?
What is Celecoxib used to treat and how does it work?
Used in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid and AS
Works by inhibiting COX-2 (selective) inhibits arachidonic acid to prostaglandin
What class of drug is cholamphenicol?
What is Cholamphenicol used to treat and how does it work?
Used in conjunctivitis, meningitis, cholera
Bacteriostatic - inhibits protein synthesis
What type of drug is cyclosporin and what is it used for?
Used in Rheumatod arthritis, psoriasis, Chrons
What class of drug is ciprofloxacin?
What is Ciprofloxacin used to treat and how does it work?
Used for gram positives e.g. staph, strep
Inhibits DNA gyrase which prevents nucleic acid synthesis and replication
Which two drugs make up Co-amoxiclav (augmentin)?
Clavaulonic acid and amoxicillin
What is Co-amoxiclav used to treat and how does it work?
Beta-lactamase inhibitor and inhibits penecillin binding proteins which inhibit cell wall synthesis
How does diamorphine work?
Inhibit release of pain transmitters in brain and spinal cord to produce analgesic affect
What are the side effects of diamorphine?
Addiction and dependence
How do you treat opioid induced respiratory depression?
When are somatostatin analogues used?
Acromegaly to increase inhibition of growth hormone
What is dalteparin used to treat and how does it work?
Used in PE, unstable angina, DVT prophylaxis
Inhibits formation of factor Xa and thus thrombin formation
What class of drug is dobutamine?
What is Tamoxifen used to treat and how does it work?
Treatment in breast cancer, binds to oestrogen receptors which prevents oestrogen binding to receptors on cancer cells
What class of drug is Doxazosin?
What is Doxazosin used to treat and how does it work?
Hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia
Blocks alpha 1- receptors on vascular smooth muscle which causes vasodilatation
What class of drug is ephedrine?
A and B adrenergic agonist
Which drug is used in the treatment of diabetes insipidus?
Desmopression - vasopressin analogue - releases vasopressin
What is ethinylestradiol used to treat?
(oestrogren) used in menstrual disorders, osteoporosis and prostate cancer
What class of drug is furosemide?
What is furosemide used to treat and how does it work?
Used in hypertension, oedema related HF
Blocks Na-K-Cl cotransporter in loop of hence which inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron
What are the side effects of furosemide?
Hypokalaemia, increased urination, dehydration
What is GTN spray used to treat and how does it work?
Used in angina and IHD
Dilate systemic veins to reduce venous return to the heart --> reduction of pre-load on the heart
What is a side effect of GTN?
Headaches, syncope, diziness
What class of drug is ipatropium?
muscarinic antagonist - long-acting bronchodilator
What is Ipatropium used to treat and how does it work?
Used in COPD and Asthma
Blocks acetylcholine binding to muscarinic receptors (M3) which reduces bronchoconstriction
What are the side effects of ipatropium?
Dry mouth, tachycardia, worsening of vision may cause glaucoma
How do aminosalicylates eg mesalazine work in UC?
Release 5 ASA which has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects
What is loperamide used to treat and how does it work?
Used in IBD and IBS
Slows down intestinal motility - anti-motility agent
What is metformin used to treat and how does it work?
Used in type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome
Works by decreasing hepatic glucose absorption and improves insulin sensitivity
What class of drug is methotrexate?
What is methotrexate used to treat and how does it work?
Used rheumatoid arthritis, severe psoriasis and chrons
works by inhibiting the enzyme which converts folic acid to FH4 which is required for DNA and protein synthesis
What class of drug is pilocarpine?
What is pilocarpine used for and suggest a side effect?
Stimulates salivation for patients having chemotherapy
Side effect = slows the heart
Where are M1 , M2 and M3 receptors found?
M3- Vascular smooth muscle
What class of drug is oxybutin?
What is Oxybutin used to treat and how does it work?
Used in urinary frequency, urgency and incontinence
Works by blocking ACh at muscarinic receptors and decreases muscle spasms of bladder
When is Ursodeoxycholic acid used?
Primary biliary cirrhosis ro reduce cholesterol absorption and dissolve cholesterol gallstones
When would you take colchicine?
What is ramipril used to treat and how does it work?
Used in hypertension, heart failure, stroke
Inhibit activity of ACE --> less angiotensin 2 produced --> relaxation of arterial smooth muscle.
Less bradykinin breakdown
What are the side effects of ramipril?
Angiotensin formation --> hypotension, renal failure
bradykinin formation--> dry cough
What is the treatment for a paracetamol overdose?
Name 5 signs of paracetamol overdose (MARCH)?
Acute hepatitis (ALT >1000)
Renal failure (Cr >300)
What is Rifampacin used to treat and how does it work?
Inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase thus nucleic acid synthesis
What is a side effect of Rifampicin?
Red urine and hepatitis
What is a side effect of isoniazid?
What is a side effect of pyramizaidine?
Hepatitis, gout and rash
What is a side effect of ethambutol?
What class of drug is rivaroxiban and what is it used for?
Factor Xa - DOAC
Used as an anti-coagulant in PE, DVT
When would you use cholestyramine?
Reduce plasma cholesterol levels, pruritus in PBC
What is salmeterol used to treat and how does it work?
Beta 2 stimulation which causes relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
What is the mechanism of clopidorgel?
Stops ADP binding to P2y12 which activates Gp IIb/IIIa receptors (required for fibrinogen mediated cross-linking) so prevents platelet aggregation
What class of drug is Sildefanil?
Phosphodiesterase (type V(5)) Inhibitor
What is Sildefanil used to treat and how does it work?
Used in erectile dysfunction
Inhibit PDE5 --> vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation
Which drug is used in acromegaly when pituitary tumour cannot be controlled with surgery?
Pegvisomant - growth hormone receptor antagonist
What class of drug is tamulosin?
What is tamulosin used for and how does it work?
Used in BPH
Selective alpha 1 antagonist - relaxation of smooth muscle --> less resistance to urinary flow
Suggest a side effect of tamulosin?
Allergy, hypotension, retrograde ejaculation
What is a severe complication of tramadol use?
What is the mechanism of tramadol?
Serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors. Enhance serotonin release
What class of drug is Valsartan?
ARB - angiotensin II receptor blocker
Name 3 side effects of valsartan?
Sympotmatic hypotension, angioedema, rash
What class of drug is verapamil?
Calcium channel blocker - phenylalkylamine
What is verapamil used to treat and how does it work?
Angina, hypertension, tachycardia
Works by blocking L-type calcium channels and preventing calcium from binding
Name 2 side effects of Verapamil?
Constipation, bradycardia, worsening of cardiac failure
Name 4 side effects of amiodarone?
Sun sensitivity and slate grey discolouration of skin
Corneal micro-deposits and optic neuropathy
(Interaction with warfarin)
What is the mechanism of sacubitril?
Neprilysin inhibitor - BNP is broken down by neprolysin. If BNP not broken down --> increased renal excretion of sodium and water, increased vascular permiability, inhibit aldosterone
What is the mechanism of NOAC/DOAC?
Directly acts of factors 2 and 10
What class of drug is spironalactone?
Name a drug which is a direct renin inhibitor?
What class of drug is amlodipine?
Dihydropyridines - calcium channel blocker
What are the side effects of dihydropyridines (nifedipine, amlodipine)?
Flushing, headache, oedema and paliptations
How does amlodipine work and what is it used to treat?
Used in hypertension
Is a peripheral arterial vasodilator - reduce after load on the heart
What is the mechanism of action of proton pump inhibitors?
Reduce gastric acid secretion by irreversibly inhibiting H+/K+ ATPAse in gastric parietal cells - suppresses gastric acid
How does H2 receptor antagonists eg Ranitidine work?
proton pump regulated by histamine which binds to H2 receptors on parietal cells to stimulate acid secretion - so blocks H2 receptor
When are antacids eg gaviscon used?
Symptomatic relief of heartburn and short term relief of dyspepsia
Which drug can be used in severe acne?
Isotrenion which is a retinoid
What is used in Type 2 diabetes to control blood glucose when metformin contraindicated?
Which drug is used to treat primary hypothyroidism?
Levothyroxine - increases T4
Which drug is used as long term treatment in hyperthyroidism?