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Flashcards in Drugs and Medications Deck (13):
1

Explain: Antibiotics

Use: bacterial infections

Types:
- Broad spectrum: effective against Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria
- Narrow Spectrum: effective against fewer species

Main Antibiotics:
Chemical group- beta lactams: Benzylpenicillin (effective against Gram + bacteria only), Ampicillin (effective against Gram - bacteria)
- These target the bacteria's cell wall, weakening it causing the bacteria cell to burst and die

Chemical group- Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin (effective against Gram - bacteria)
- These target the bacteria's protein synthesis

2

Explain: Ampicillin

Antibiotic-Penicillin

Category A

Indications: bacterial infections- respiratory tract, UTI, bacterial meningitis, GIT infections

Dose: Na 2.7 mmol/g; powder for reconstitution with water vial
- IM
- IV

Adverse reactions:
- Superinfection; pseudomembranous colitis
- GI upset
- hypersensitivity incl rash and anaphylaxis

Precautions:
- Sore throat, pharyngitis (infectious mononucleosis risk)
- lymphatic leukaemia
- prolonged use

Contraindications: previous hypersensitivity reaction to any penicillin drug

Susceptible bacteria (ampicillin injection):
Gram+
- Strep pneumoniae
- Listeria monocytogenes
Gram -
- H. Influenzae
- N. Gonorrhoeae
- E. Coli

3

Explain: Gentamicin

Antibiotic (Aminoglycoside antibiotic)

Category D

Indications: Infection- bacterial septicemia, CNS infections (meningitis), UTI, skin/bone/ soft tissue infections

Dose:
- IM
- IV

Adverse reactions:
- allergic reaction;
- superinfection;
- rash
- GI upset
- respiratory effect

Precautions:
- Renal impairment, dialysis
- dehydration
- aminoglycoside allergy

Contraindications:
- Previous toxic reaction (oto/ nephrotoxicity) to aminoglycoside therapy

Susceptible bacteria:
Gram+
- Staphylococcus species
Gram-
- Citrobacter species
- Enterobacter species

4

Explain: Methyldopa

Brand: Aldomet

Anti hypertensive

Category A

Indication: Mild-severe hypertension

Dose:
- initially 250 mg 2-3 times daily for 48 hrs; max 3 g/day

Adverse reaction:
- Abnormal LFTs, fever, jaundice
- sedation, asthenia, weakness, headache
- GI Upset
- Rash

Contraindications:
- active hepatic disease


Action: acts centrally in the brainstem to oppose the actions of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and doapmine

Cause:
- inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, causing vasodilation and brachycardia which reduces BP

5

Explain: Beta blockers

used to manage pregnancy associated hypertension

Action: They block adrenaline receptors by acting as antagonists

Cause: lower BP by reducing heart rate and cardiac output

6

Explain: Clexane

Generic: Enoxaparin sodium

Anticoagulant (SC)

Category C

Indications:
- Prevention of thrombo-embolic disorders of venous origin in surgical patients
- Treatment of established DVT
- Prophylaxis for bed ridden patients

Dose: SC
- 20mg/40mg/60/80mg
- mild-mod risk 5-7days
- mod-high risk 7-10 days

Contraindications:
- Allergy to CLEXANE, heparin or its derivatives
- Acute bacterial endocarditis
- Conditions with a high risk of uncontrolled haemorrhage

Precautions:
- conditions that increase risk of bleeding
- uncontrolled arterial hypertension
- BF women

Adverse effects
- anaemia
- nausea
- diarrhoea
- peripheral oedema

7

Explain: Fragmin

Generic: Dalteparin sodium

Anticoagulant/Antithrombotic

Category C

Dose:
- IV injection or SC
- 2 500 IU subcutaneously each morning until the patient is mobilised, in general 5 – 7 days

Indications:
- Prophylaxis against thromboembolic complications in the peri- or postoperative period of
surgery
- Prophylaxis against thrombotic complications
- Treatment of acute DVT
- Extended treatment of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) (proximal deep vein
thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism)

Adverse reaction:
- Inj site pain,
- haematoma
- major bleeding event
- allergic reaction incl anaphylaxis
- thrombocytopenia

Contraindications:
- Hypersensitivity to fragmin, ot other low molecular weight heparins
- Ulcerative conditions
- Sympathetic block. Spinal and epidural puncture

Precautions
- Epidural or spinal anaethesia
- conditions with high risk of haemorrhage
- Osteporosis
- BF women

Interactions
- Enchanced anticoag effect with aspirin, NSAIDS, Vit K antagnosit
- Reduced coag effect with antihistamines, ascorbic acid

8

Explain: Cartia

Generic: Duentric coated low dose aspirin

Anticoagulant/ Antithrombotic

Use: helps reduce blood stickiness, the tendency to clot

Dose:
- 100mg 1 tab same time daily

Adverse reactions:
- heartburn
- nausea
- Rashes
- increased bleeding
- GI haemorrhage

Contraindications:
- allergy to NSAIDs or aspirin
- Pregnant or BF
- bleeding/clotting disorders
- severe kidney/liver failure

Precautions:
- Peptic ulcer,
- bronchial asthma;
- renal, hepatic impairment
- preop

9

Explain: Caffeine Citrate (Neonate medication)

Generic: Caffeine citrate/ Methylxanthine

Respiratory agent

Category A

Indication: Short-term treatment of apnoea of prematurity in infants (gestational age 28-< 33 wks)

Dose:
- IV Injection
40 mg/2 mL (Loading dose. 20 mg/kg IV and 5 mg/kg once daily IV)
- Oral Solution 25 mg/5 mL (5 mg/kg once daily)

Adverse reactions:
- irritability, jitteriness, restlessness
- fast heart beat
- stomach upset or vomiting
- rash
- passing large amounts of urine

Contraindications:
- allergy to caffeine or citrate

Interactions:
- asthma medications
- antibiotics
- medicines containing caffeine
- Cimetidine: used to trest reflux and ulcers
- benzodiazapines
and others....

10

Explain: Curosurf (Neonate medication)

Generic: Poractant alfa

Respiratory agent

Category ?

Indications: Pulmonary surfactant.
- Respiratory distress syndrome treatment in premature infants

Dose:
-Initial: Intratracheal Suspension is 2.5 mL/kg birth weight
- Repeat: Up to 2 repeat doses of 1.25 mL/kg birth weight, 12hr intervals

Precautions:
- Correction of acidosis, hypotension, anemia, hypoglycemia,
and hypothermia is recommended prior to CUROSURF
administration

Adverse effects:
- Transient: brachycardia, hypotension, endotracheal tube blockage and oxygen desaturation

11

Explain: Epilim

Generic: Sodium Valproate

Anticonvulsant, antipsychotic

Category D

Indication: epilepsy or mania

Dose:
- Adults: initially 600 mg/day,
- may inc.r by 200 mg/day at 3 day intervals

Adverse reactions:
- Incr suicide risk;
- neurological, reproductive, hepatic dysfunction
- GI upset
- tremor
- convulsion

Precautions:
- Abrupt withdrawal (incl in pregnancy);
- severe seizures
- neurological, renal impairment
- surgery;
- diabetes (syrup);
- thrombocytopenia;
- SLE

Contraindications:
- pregnancy
- Pre-existing hepatic dysfunction
- severe hepatitis family history
- known urea cycle disorder

Interactions:
- Other anticonvulsants eg phenytoin, phenobarbital etc
- CNS depressants incl alcohol
- Anticoagulants
- Antidepressants

12

Explain: Tegretol

Generic: Carbamazepine

Anticonvulsant, neurotropic/psychotropic

Category D

Indication: Epilepsy, terigeminal neuralgia

Dose:
- > 15 yrs: initially 100-200 mg 1-2 times daily;
- may incr to 400 mg 2-3 times daily

Adverse reactions:
- CNS (eg dizziness, ataxia, somnolence, fatigue, headache, diplopia),
- endocrine (eg oedema, hyponatraemia)
- hepatic disturbance
- blurred vision
- GI upset

Precautions:
- Not for status epilepticus, trivial facial pain, headache
- mixed seizure disorder
- cardiac, hepatic, renal impairment history

Contraindications:
- Hypersensitivity to structurally related drugs eg TCAs
- SLE
- bone marrow depression history
- hepatic failure

Interactions:
- HIV protease inhibitors
- oral anticoagulants
- Ca channel blockers
- inducers (incl other anticonvulsants, St John's wort)

13

Explain: Lamictal

Generic: Lamotrigine

Antiepileptic (substituted asymmetric triazine antiepileptic)

Category D

Indication: partial and generalised seizures in adults and children.

Dose:
- 1-2 mg doses as 2 mg every 2nd day for 1st 2 wks

Adverse reactions:
- GI upset;
- incr suicidality risk;
- Severe, potentially life threatening rashes
- alopecia
- hypersensitivity incl fever,
- facial oedema

Precautions:
- Excessive initial dose,
- rapid dose escalation;
- abrupt withdrawal

Contraindications:
- Lamotrigine is contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to lamotrigine, or to
any other ingredient in Lamictal Tablets

Interactions:
- phenobarbital
- Na valproate
- hormonal contraceptives