Drugs & Bugs Unit II Flashcards Preview

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1

Nisseria Meningitis Gram ?

Gram -

2

3 Gram + Cocci

Staph
Strep
Entero

3

Localized, cutaneous abscess poss. after cut or foreign body

Staph. Aureus
Catalase + --> fibrin capsule
created by bact AND host

4

Staphylococcus Epidermitis
Catalase ?

Other pertinent infection property and what does it like to stick to?

Catalase Negative--> no abscess
makes slime
sticks to foreign bodies - catheters, pacemakers, prosthetic hips etc
.nl. flora, usually not pathogenic in healthy ppl.

5

ClostridiumGram ?C or R

+R
C. diff after antiB. tx --> nl. flora killed, C. diff prolif.

6

Clostridiumbreaths?

Anaerobic.
Killed by O2
Forms spores (endospores) which can tolerate O2

7

Staphylococcus major resistance problem?

Penicillinase production

8

How can penicillinase gene be transmitted from bact. to bact?

bacteriophage - plasmid

9

What does Beta-lactamase do?

Produced by bact., induced to do so by presence of penicillins,
Hydrolyzes beta lactams

10

PCN works on stage ? of c.w. synth?

Vanc. on stage ?

PCN, Ceph stage 3
Vanc. stage 2 --> works on MRSA

11

MRSA mode of resistance?

bact. alters its penicillin binding protein (stage 3 of c.w. synth)

12

Pen G doesn't work well on what type of bacteri?

Gr. ---> doesn't penetrate outer membrane very well

13

Oral Absorption for Pen G, V and Piperacillin?

Pen G - crappy
Pen V - good (acid stable)
Piperacillin - crappy - IV only

14

What is special about Dicloxacillin?

PCN-ase resistant and available orally

15

Give Piperacillin with what other drug? Why?

Tazobactam (Pip-Taz)--> is a Beta Lactamase inhibitor
--> effectively extends the spectrum of piper.

16

If you want low, sustained drug levels to fight endocarditis-syphilis, use what drug and what route?

IM
Pen G

17

Name two extended spectrum penicillins.

What are the additional bugs they are good for?

Amoxicillin
Ampicillin

-Rods
E. Coli, H. flu

18

Piperacillin's claim to fame bug?

Route?

Pseudomonas
Bacteroides (and other anerobes)

IV only

19

How are most Penicillins excreted and rough half-life?

Renal

half-life 1-2 hours

20

Name a drug that will block renal excretion of penicillins and what is its method of action?

Probenecid...blocks tubular secretion to prolong duration of action

21

Penicillin...weak acid? weak base?ionized or not at physiologic pH?

weak acidionized at phys. pH

22

Better oral absorption...Pen G or V?

More effective...Pen G or V?

Pen V. acid stable- better oral

Pen G - more effective used IV for hospitalized pts with serious infections

23

Penicillin G is awesome because...

powerful and inexpensive

24

Methicillin is no longer available...what drug has replaced its niche?

Nafcilin

25

Draw-back of penicillinase-resistant penicillins?

less potent against Pen-G bugs

But good for PCN-ase producers

26

Prototypical penicillinase-resistant penicillin?

Methicillin.

27

Spectrum of dicloxacillin?

narrow+/- C

28

What makes Amoxicillin and Ampicillin wider spectrum?

increased hydrophobicity ---> can penetrate porins of Gr (-) bugs

give in Amox in concert with Clavulanate to extend to PCN-ase bugs.

29

Which penicillin is anti-pseudomonal?

What are the other bugs it is good for?

Piperacillin.

also kills B. fragilis and enterococci (+AG)useful in anaerobic infections

30

Name two beta-lactamase drugs and what they are typically combined with.

Clavulanic acid (Amox)

Tazobactam (Piper)