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Flashcards in Dyspnea Deck (55)
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1

Is dyspnea a subjective or objective finding?

subjective feeling, "I can't catch my breath"

2

Is tachypnea a subjective or objective finding?

objective finding, rapid resp rate may or may not be associated with the feeling of not being able to breathe properly

3

What are the pathophysiologies for tachypnea and dyspnea?

The mechanisms are the same: inadequate oxygen for body needs or inability to excrete CO2

4

What goes into an inadequate oxygen rate for the bodies needs or inability for the body to excrete CO2?

decrease intake of O2
decrease absorption of O2
decrease perfusion of lungs with blood
Inability of the body to transport enough O2 to the tissues
Increased demand of O2 by tissues
decrease ability to excrete CO2 and other waste products of metabolism

5

What are ways the body can have a decreased intake to O2?

There is a block in the resp passages
Malfunction of the resp muscles of inspiration
Malfunction of the resp center in the brain
High altitude

6

What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a block in the resp. passage?

Laryngitis
Foreign bodies
Asthma
Acute bronchitis

7

What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a malfunction of the resp muscles of inspiration?

kyphoscoliosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Peritonitis

8

What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a malfunction of the resp center in the brain?

encephalitis
brain tumor

9

What conditions cause an impaired absorption of O2?

lobar pneumonia
sarcoidosis
silicosis
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
pulmonary edema
ARDS

10

Why is there an impaired absorption of O2 with diseases such as silicosis?

the alveoli are damaged and/or the lung tissue is scarred

11

What would cause an inadequate perfusion of the lungs with blood?

conditions in which unoxygenated blood bypasses the alveoli
diseases with ventilation-perfusion defects

12

What are conditions that bypass the alveoli with unoxygenated blood?

pulmonary embolism
congenital heart disease

13

What are conditions that have a ventilation-perfusion defect and thus cause an inadequate ventilation of the lungs with blood?

emphysema
pneumoconioses

14

What is an a way to describe the processes that cause an inadequate perfusion of the lungs with blood?

shunt vs dead space

15

What are examples of disorders with decreased O2 transport?

Disorders that cause the tissue to not get enough O2

16

What are reasons that the tissue will not get enough O2?

not enough blood to transport it
not enough BP to perfuse them
Heart pump fails
Blood is unable to carry it

17

What is an example of a disorder that does not have enough blood to transport the necessary amount of O2?

Anemia and hemorrhagic shock

18

What is an example of a disorder that does not have enough BP to perfuse the blood cells to the body?

vasomotor shock and cardiogenic shock

19

What is an example of a disorder where the heart pump fails, inhibiting ventilation and perfusion?

CHF

20

What is an example of a disorder where the blood is unable to carry the necessary amount of O2 for the body?

Methemoglobinemia and CO poisoning

21

What is methemoglobinemia?

the iron atom in deoxyhemeglobin loses an electron, resulting in ferric (fe+3) ion instead of ferrous (fe+2) ion. It can no longer bind O2, thereby reducing the oxygen carrying capacity

22

Which way does methemoglobinemia shift the O2 curve?

Shifts the curve left, decreased release of O2 to tissues

23

What is the most common cause of methemoglobinemia?

Acquired through pharm agents such as sulfonamides, dapsone, benzocaine and more; rarely lidocaine)

24

What are clues to the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia?

Pt appears cyantotic and doesnt improve with O2, blood appears chocolate, shows a normal ABG

25

How do you treat methemoglobinemia?

methylene blue enhances the conversion back to hemeglobin; it is given IV

26

What type of conditions increase the demand of O2 to the tissues?

Those that increase the tissues metabolism

27

What disease states increase the cells/tissues metabolism?

nervous stress, panic disorders, fever, leukemia, malignancies, hyperthyroidism

28

What else increases the cells metabolism?

exercise

29

What are conditions that inhibit the bodies ability to excrete CO2 and other wastes?

emphysema, lactic acidosis, diabetic acidosis, uremia

*damaged lung tissue

30

What are the 4 categories of differential diagnosis of dyspnea?

Pulm
Cardio
Mixed
Neither