Flashcards in Dyspnea Deck (55)
Is dyspnea a subjective or objective finding?
subjective feeling, "I can't catch my breath"
Is tachypnea a subjective or objective finding?
objective finding, rapid resp rate may or may not be associated with the feeling of not being able to breathe properly
What are the pathophysiologies for tachypnea and dyspnea?
The mechanisms are the same: inadequate oxygen for body needs or inability to excrete CO2
What goes into an inadequate oxygen rate for the bodies needs or inability for the body to excrete CO2?
decrease intake of O2
decrease absorption of O2
decrease perfusion of lungs with blood
Inability of the body to transport enough O2 to the tissues
Increased demand of O2 by tissues
decrease ability to excrete CO2 and other waste products of metabolism
What are ways the body can have a decreased intake to O2?
There is a block in the resp passages
Malfunction of the resp muscles of inspiration
Malfunction of the resp center in the brain
What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a block in the resp. passage?
What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a malfunction of the resp muscles of inspiration?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
What conditions cause a decreased intake of O2 via a malfunction of the resp center in the brain?
What conditions cause an impaired absorption of O2?
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Why is there an impaired absorption of O2 with diseases such as silicosis?
the alveoli are damaged and/or the lung tissue is scarred
What would cause an inadequate perfusion of the lungs with blood?
conditions in which unoxygenated blood bypasses the alveoli
diseases with ventilation-perfusion defects
What are conditions that bypass the alveoli with unoxygenated blood?
congenital heart disease
What are conditions that have a ventilation-perfusion defect and thus cause an inadequate ventilation of the lungs with blood?
What is an a way to describe the processes that cause an inadequate perfusion of the lungs with blood?
shunt vs dead space
What are examples of disorders with decreased O2 transport?
Disorders that cause the tissue to not get enough O2
What are reasons that the tissue will not get enough O2?
not enough blood to transport it
not enough BP to perfuse them
Heart pump fails
Blood is unable to carry it
What is an example of a disorder that does not have enough blood to transport the necessary amount of O2?
Anemia and hemorrhagic shock
What is an example of a disorder that does not have enough BP to perfuse the blood cells to the body?
vasomotor shock and cardiogenic shock
What is an example of a disorder where the heart pump fails, inhibiting ventilation and perfusion?
What is an example of a disorder where the blood is unable to carry the necessary amount of O2 for the body?
Methemoglobinemia and CO poisoning
What is methemoglobinemia?
the iron atom in deoxyhemeglobin loses an electron, resulting in ferric (fe+3) ion instead of ferrous (fe+2) ion. It can no longer bind O2, thereby reducing the oxygen carrying capacity
Which way does methemoglobinemia shift the O2 curve?
Shifts the curve left, decreased release of O2 to tissues
What is the most common cause of methemoglobinemia?
Acquired through pharm agents such as sulfonamides, dapsone, benzocaine and more; rarely lidocaine)
What are clues to the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia?
Pt appears cyantotic and doesnt improve with O2, blood appears chocolate, shows a normal ABG
How do you treat methemoglobinemia?
methylene blue enhances the conversion back to hemeglobin; it is given IV
What type of conditions increase the demand of O2 to the tissues?
Those that increase the tissues metabolism
What disease states increase the cells/tissues metabolism?
nervous stress, panic disorders, fever, leukemia, malignancies, hyperthyroidism
What else increases the cells metabolism?
What are conditions that inhibit the bodies ability to excrete CO2 and other wastes?
emphysema, lactic acidosis, diabetic acidosis, uremia
*damaged lung tissue