Why was the Weimer republic associated with the surrender and the harsh treaty terms?
Because the politicians who ran the Weimer republic were the same politicians who surrendered at the end of WW1 and who signed the peace treaty.
Who signed the armistice and when?
Matthias Erzberger, 11 Nov 1918. It was an agreement to stop the fighting.
Why was their littler alternative to signing the armistice?
- Germanyy was torn by political and social unrest.
- Money for troops was running out.
- 2 million US troops in 1917 made allies much stronger.
- By August 19, the German army was in retreat.
What was the treaty of Versiales?
-It was a peace treaty decided by the allies that Germany was not allowed to negotiate. it was on the terms of peace after the armiciste was signed. It was signed in Versailles on 28 June 1919.
Why was the treaty of Versailles unpopular and why did it make Weimer Unpopular?
- Germany was not allowed to negotiate the terms of the treaty, the terms were imposed, not agreed.
- Article 231 said that Germany was responsible for the war and that it had to pay reparations to victorias countries.
- Germany had to reduce armed forces and territory.
- Because the politicians who ran the Weimer republic were the same politicians who signed the treaty.
What were the terms of the treaty of Versailles?
-Reperations to the allies, fixed at 136000 million marks,
(six-point six billion pounds.)
-Germany lost all its colonies, 11 German territories in Africa were given to victorious countries.
-Military strength cut. Army limited to 100, 000 men, no heavy artillery allowed to be used in Germany.
-Navy limited to 6 battle ships, 6 cruisers,12 destoyers and 12 torpedo boats. All other fleets destroyed.
-No air force allowed, existing air force destroyed.
-Rhinedland, the land bordering Germany and France, had to be demilitarised, no german army was allowed on it. Ally troops stayed their till 1930.
-Gemany lost 15% of all it’s european territory, all over seas property investment, almost 50% of it’s iron and 15% of it’s coastal reserves.
What was the Dolchstass (stab in the back) to the German people by their politicians?
German people didn’t believe the German army had been defeated. It was in retreat by November 1918, but it was never defeated. critics say the german army was betrayed by its politicians.
What was the impact of the treaty of Versailles?
- damaged the German economy and imposed heavy respirations.
- Made Weimer Economically and Politically weak.
- Treaty was so harsh people resented the new leaders of the German republic.
- The new leaders became known as the “November criminals.” because they surrendered in November 1918.
- Weimer republic became linked to defeat, humiliation and weakness.
How much of the National assembly was made up of moderate parties?
What did extreme right-wing groups want in 1919-23?
- A strong government headed by a strong leader, with the support of a strong army.
- They supported capitalism, private ownership of land and businesses, championed families, law and order, and traditional values.
What was the main right-wing party in 1919?
National party (DNVP)
What did left-wing groups want in 1919-23?
Germany to be controlled by the people.
- Opposed capitalism.
- Wanted to abolish private ownership of land and businesses and put them in the hands of the workers.
- Internationalists- Stressed the cooperation of nations rather than the independence of Nations.
What was the main left-wing party in 1919?
The German Communist Party (KPD)
What struggles came with the 1920 elections for the National Assembly?
Only 45% of the new seats in the Reichstag were moderate parties, both the left and the right party had about 20% each.
Moderate parties struggled with majority coalitions.
What were the USPD (Spartacists)?
An independent socialist party based in Berlin, left-wing, supported the communists and was led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht.
When and what was the Spartacist Revolt?
January 1919, Ebert sacked Emil Eichhorn, police chief in Berlin, who was popular with the workers.. So on 5th January, thousands of workers took to the street.
-Spartacist saw this as a chance to undermine the government and called for an uprising and general strike in berlin on the sixth of January. 100,000 workers took to the streets. Weimer was losing control of the capital.
What was the Friekorps?
Soldiers were released from the army as a result of ToV, but they kept their weapons.
How did the Spartacist Revolt end?
Ebert turned the Friekorps on the rioters. on the 13th of January, rebels were driven off the streets. on the 16 of Jan, Luxemburg and Liebknecht were arrested and killed by friekorps.
What was the Kapp Putsch, when did it happen?
1920 March, Ebert struggled to control the Friekoprs, and they took to the streets, fearing unemployment and turned arms against the republic.
5000 armed men marched Berlin.
General Seekt had of the german army, refused to resist the rebels.
Wolf gang Kapp was put forward as the figurehead of the movement and he declared a new government and invited the Kaiser to return from exile. Many members of the republic fled to Stuttgart out of fear.
How did Kapp Putch end?
The real Government urged the German people to go on strike against Friekorps, essential services stopped and the capital stopped. 4 days later Kapp realized he couldn’t govern and fled. He was caught and he died in prison.