Flashcards in Early Elizabethan England Deck (128):
What was Elizabeth's courts?
Made up of nobleman who acted as monarch's advisers and friends. Advised monarch and helped display her wealth and power. Members of court could also be members of the Privy Council.
What is justice without peace?
Large landowners appointed by government, who kept law and order locally and heard court cases.
Who were the Lord Lieutenants?
Noblemen, appointed by government, who governed English counties and raised local militia.
What was the privy council?
Members of nobility who helped govern country. They monitored parliament, Justices of the Peace and oversaw country.
What was parliament?
Advised Elizabeth's government, made up of House of Lords and House of Commons. House of lords was made up of noblemen and bishops. House of Commons was elected though very few people could vote. Parliament passed laws and approved taxes. (extraordinary taxation).
What is extraordinary taxation?
Extra taxes required to pay for unexpected expenses, especially war.
What is militia?
Force of ordinary people (not professional soldiers) raised in an emergency.
What was the social hierarchy in the countryside where 90% of England's population lived, from top to bottom?
Nobility, gentry, yeomen farmers, tenant farmers, landless and labouring poor, homeless and vagrants.
What was the social hierarchy of towns where 10% of England's population lived from top to bottom?
Merchants, professionals, business owners, craftsmen, unemployed.
Who were the nobility?
Major landowners; often lords, dukes and earls.
Who were the gentry?
Owned smaller estates.
Who were the yeomen farmers?
Owned small amount of land.
Who were tenant farmers?
Rented land from yeomen farmers and gentry.
Who were the landless and labouring poor?
People who didn't own or rent land, and had to work or labour to provide for themselves and their families.
Who were the homeless and vagrants?
Moved from place to place looking for work.
Who were the merchants?
Traders who were very wealthy.
Who were the professionals?
Lawyers, doctors and clergymen.
Who were business owners?
Often highly skilled craftsmen e.g. silversmiths, glovers (glove makers), carpenters or tailors.
Who were craftsmen?
Skilled employees, including apprentices.
Who were eh unskilled labourers and the unemployed?
People who had no regular work and couldn't provide for themselves and their families.
What was obedience and care?
Wherever were in Elizabethan society, owned and respect and obedience to those above you and had duty of care to those below. Landowners ran their estates according to these ideas. Ideally they would take care of their tenants, especially during times of hardship.
How did households work around obedience and care?
Households were run along similar lines to society. Husband and father was head of household. His wife, children and any servants were expected to be obedient to him.
What problems was Elizabeth facing when she became queen?
She was young and lacked experience, to pass laws she needed support of parliament, she was unmarried and was unusual for a queen to rule in her own right, as Christian tradition suggested women should follow men's authority. Many people disapproved of idea of queen regnant (queen who actually ruled), Elizabeth's government needed money, Elizabeth's legitimacy was in doubt as pope had refused to recognise her mother's marriage to Henry VIII, Catholics refused to acknowledge Elizabeth's right to rule England, Elizabeth was Protestant. Her predecessor, Mary was Catholic.
What key issues were facing Elizabeth in 1588?
Widely expected Elizabeth would marry. However, this would reduce her power, as husband would be expected to govern country and deal with parliament. Her inexperience meant she needed support and advice of Privy Council, especially her Secretary of State, Sir William Cecil. She could issue royal proclamations and had prerogative powers, enabling her to govern without parliament's consent especially in foreign policy. However, laws could only be passed with parliament's approval as Acts of Parliament.
What were the problems of marriage?
If Elizabeth married Protestant-anger Catholics. If married Catholic-anger Protestant. Marriage could involve England in expensive wars, damaging royal finances and requiring taxation. Yet marriage was important, Elizabeth needed heir. If died without heir, throne would be vacant-could lead to civil war.
How much was the crown in debt by 1588?
What were Elizabeth's strengths and character?
Confident-enabled her to win over her subjects and command support in parliament. Resilient-spent time in Tower accused of treason and facing possible execution. Could cope with pressures of being queen. Well educated spoke Latin Greek French and Italian. Had excellent grasp on politics, understood interests and ambitions of subjects, was able to use her powers of patronage effectively. Was Protestant, number of Protestants was growing, making her more secure. Could claim divine right with growing conviction.
What was Reinventing the role?
Elizabeth was able to use strengths to reinvent herself as different type of monarch. Liked to demonstrate that, event though was female, was no ordinary woman. Therefore argued she didn't need to marry and could govern England independently.
What was Elizabeth's propaganda?
Throughout reign, Elizabeth was happy to portray herself as strong legitimate, popular monarch and a 'Virgin Queen'-married only to England and not prince or King. Reflected in paintings.
What is a charismatic leader?
Someone who possesses great personal appeal and can use this to win people over.
What is a legitimate ruler?
Someone who is legally and morally entitled to rule.
What is the divine right?
Idea that God alone appointed monarch, meaning to challenge monarch was to challenge God. Successful monarchs claimed divine providence of their actions, reinforcing their legitimacy. Less successful monarchs could face charges of Godly disapproval and find their legitimacy undermined.
What is a Protestant?
Christians who no longer accept the authority of the pope and many of the teachings of the Catholic Church. During Reformation Protestants, under Martin Luther seceded the Catholic Church and this resulted in religious wars in France/Germany.
What is patronage?
Monarch could use granting of lands, jobs and titles to reward her supporters. People who received these positions could use them to become wealthy.
What was the crowns debt and annual income in 1558?
Annual income: £286,667
Where was the debt owed to?
Over £100,000 owed to foreign money lenders (Antwerp exchange)-charged 14% interest.
How did Mary Tudor contribute to the debt?
Sold off Crown lands to pay for wars in France, so crown's income was falling.
What other financial problems was Elizabeth facing?
Needed money to remain secure on throne, as could use it to reward her supporters. Since 1540, Crown had debased (devalued) coinage, by reducing its silver and gold content, in order to make more money to fight wars against France. Resulted in inflation, as value of currency fell.
How could monarchs raise money?
Rents and income from their lands (crown lands), taxes from trade, special additional taxes, known as subsidies, which had to be agreed by parliament, profits of justice, loans.
What are the positives and negatives of raising taxes?
Queen could convene parliament and ask for subsidies, additional taxes would be unpopular with ordinary people, increasing risk of unrest.
What are the effects of Elizabeth's policies?
In spite of her careful management of Crown's finances, was limited reform. Parliamentary grants were raised locally, with many landowners acting as Lord Lieutenants and Justices of the Peace, pocketing some of proceeds before rest sent to Crown. Meant ordinary people faced heavier financial burden while wealthy benefited.
What are the positives and negatives of improving the quality of money by increasing the gold and silver content in the coinage?
In 1560, Thomas Gresham, Crown's financial adviser, suggested to William Cecil, but crown was slow to respond. Any new coinage would be traded alongside older, less valuable coins. People would struggle to exchange older coins for new coins.
What did Elizabeth do to solve financial problems?
Didn't raise taxes, but instead hoarded her income and cut her household expenses by half. Like her predecessors, she sold Crown lands, raising £120,000. By 1574, queen could claim crown was out of debt for first time sine 1558.
What was the French threat?
France was wealthier than England and had a bigger population. Elizabeth's cousin-Mary, was married to the French King, Francis II. Mary had a strong claim to the English throne and English Catholics might rally to her if the French invaded.
What is the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis?
England had lost Calais to France. Was England's last remaining territory in mainland Europe, was pressure on Elizabeth to regain it. However, war with France would be expensive and dangerous.
What was the Auld Alliance?
France's alliance with Scotland threatened England, Mary of Guise (James V widow), who ruled Scotland on behalf of her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, kept French soldiers there, who could attack England. Relationship between France and Scotland was further strengthened by marriage of Francis II to Mary Queen of Scots in 1559.
How was the fact that France had ended its war with Spain became a challenge for Elizabeth?
French military resources were no longer stretched by war with Spain, making a war with England more likely. Was also possibility that France and Spain, both Catholic countries, would unite against Protestant England. Spain also had troops in the Netherlands, not far from England.
How did war being expensive become a challenge?
Crown was in debt. England couldn't afford a war with France, Scotland or Spain, as would be ruinously expensive and deepen government's debts.
How did Elizabeth deal with the challenges from abroad?
Elizabeth did her best to avoid upsetting Europe's most powerful countries. She sought to avoid war with France by signing the Peace of Troyes(1564), which recognised once and for all the French claim to Calais. Elizabeth was able to deal with threat posed by Scotland by placing Mary who fled Scotland in 1568 in custody in England. By imprisoning Mary and making peace with France, Elizabeth had only 1 significant threat by 1569:Spain
Why was religion important in Elizabethan England for life and ceremonies?
Central to life in England. Religious teachings and practices guided morals and behaviors as well as understanding of world. Birth, marriage and death were all marked by religious ceremonies.
Why was church and religious festivals important.
Believed going to Church, attending pilgrimages and confessing sins reduced time in purgatory. Religious festivals e.g. St Swithn's Day (15th July) and Lammas Day (2nd August) marked agricultural year and were seen as essential to a good harvest.
What religious divisions were in England and Europe in the 16th century?
Reformation divided Christians to Catholics and Protestants in 1517. North of England remained largely Catholic. Some Protestants became puritans-wanted to purify Christianity-getting rid of anything not in bible. Since 1530s many Protestants fleeing persecution in Europe had landed in England, settling in London, East Anglia and Kent. Number of English Protestant growing.
What were Catholic beliefs?
Pope is head of Church helped by cardinals, bishops and priests, Church is intermediary(go between)God and people. Can forgive sins. During mass bread and wine become actual body and blood of Christ. 7 sacraments, priests are celibate.
What are the Catholic practices?
Services in Latin, Priests wear vestments, church highly decorated.
Who was the Catholic support?
Catholics majority in North and West of England.
What are Protestant beliefs?
No pope. May be necessary to have archbishops or bishops, personal direct relationship with God via prayer and Bible. Only God can forgive sins. Bread and wine simply represent body and blood of Christ. There is no miracle. 2 sacraments: Baptism and Holly Communion. Priests can marry.
What are the Protestant practices?
Services in English, priests wear simple vestments, church plain and simple.
Where is the Protestant support?
Mostly south-east England.
What are Puritan beliefs?
Nearly same as Protestants however, there are no popes, cardinals or bishops.
What are the Puritan practices?
Nearly same as Protestant however, Churches whitewashed with no decorations.
Where is the Puritan support?
London and East Anglia.
What was the Act of Supremacy?
Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of the Church of England. All clergy and royal officials had to swear an oath of allegiance to her.
What was An Ecclesiastical High Commission?
Established to keep discipline within Church and enforce Elizabeth's religious settlement. Disloyal clergy could be punished.
What was The Book of Common Prayer (1559)?
Introduced set church service to be used in all churches. Clergy had to follow the Prayer Book wording during services or be punished.
What were The Royal Injunctions?
Set of instructions to clergy that reinforced the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity. Included instructions on how people should worship God and how religious services were to be conducted.
What were the aims of Elizabeth's religious settlement?
Inclusive and designed to be accepted by as many of her subjects as possible. Wording of the new Prayer Book could be understood to mean different things by Catholics and Protestants.
What was the Communion Sacrament?
Referred to in Book of Common Prayer could be interpreted as body and blood of Jesus. Would have appealed to Catholics, while Protestants could view it as an act of remembrance.
What were further reactions to Elizabeth's religious settlement?
Protestants would have approved of ban on pilgrimages to 'fake' miracles, while Catholics would have approve of possibility of 'real miracles'. Catholics would also have approved of use of candles, crosses and vestments in Church services.
What was the impact of the religious settlement?
8,000 clergy out of 10,000 accepted religious settlement. Many Marian Bishops (Catholic Bishops appointed by Mary Tudor) opposed settlement and had to be replaced. Majority of ordinary people accepted Elizabeth's religious settlement and attended church services, even though many held on to Catholic beliefs.
What were the royal injunctions?
Stated all clergy were required to: teach the Royal Supremacy, report those refusing to attend church to the Privy Council-absentees were fined a week's wages, keep a copy of the Bible in English, have a government licence to preach, prevent pilgrimages, religious shrines and monuments to 'fake' miracles, wears special clothes (vestments).
How did the Church preach the government's message?
Priests needed government's licence to preach. Ensured clergy preached Elizabeth's religious and political message, as those who refused to do so would be denied a licence.
How did the Church provide guidance for communities?
Parish church helped people in times of hardship and uncertainty.
How was the Church responsible for Church Courts?
These dealt with marriage, sexual offences, slander(fake insults), wills and inheritance.
How was the church responsible for visitations?
Bishops carried out inspections of churches and clergy to ensure they obeyed the religious settlement. These took place every 3-4 years. Visitations also involved checking licences of physicians, midwives and surgeons.
How was the church responsible for legitimising Elizabeth's rule?
Church encouraged people to remain loyal to and not rebel against their monarch.
How the local clergy important in village services?
In parishes, Clergyman was major figure in village community and conducted church services, including baptisms, weddings and funerals.
What advice did the clergy offer?
Spiritual and practical advice and guidance to people, especially when times were difficult.
How were the clergy affected by taxes?
Clergy funded by taxes or tithes (tax worth 10% of people's income or goods produced), or by other sources of income, e.g. sale of church pews. Gentry funded some parishes while others remained independent of local landowners.
How did parishes affect town life?
Contained much wider collection of people, including merchants, craftsmen, laborers and vagrants. Often a wider range of religious beliefs too, especially in London, which contained mainstream Protestants, Puritans and Catholics.
How did the clergy affect town life?
Varied between towns. In London, wide variety of parishes existed, some of which were very wealthy while others were relatively poor.
How did parishes respond to overcrowding?
Had wider range of issues to deal with than was case in rural parishes. Included poverty, vagrancy and diseases, such as smallpox and plague.
Who were the puritans?
Radical Protestants who wanted to 'purify' Christianity by getting rid of anything that wasn't in the bible.
What were puritan teachings?
Develop own church, wouldn't be controlled by queen. No Bishops/priests priests not wear vestments. Make world 'more godly' place-banning 'sinful' activities e.g. gambling. Wanted simpler worship, whitewashed churches no 'graven images' (Worship of religious idols)-crucifixes and statues-seen as ungodly and too Catholic. Minority believed monarch overthrown in certain circumstances. Especially if monarch was Catholic. Many were anti-Catholic, pope was anti-Christ. Millenrains puritans believed world was ending, that Christians had to prepare for Jesus' return.
How did crucifixes affect puritan worship?
Elizabeth, anxious no to upset Catholic subjects, demanded crucifix placed in each church. Puritans opposed this, when some Puritan bishops threatened to resign, Elizabeth backed down-couldn't replace them with educated protestant clergy of similar ability.
How did vestments affect Protestant worship?
Elizabeth wanted clergy to wear special vestments, as described in Royal Injections. Puritans resisted this, arguing clergy should either wear no vestments/simple vestments. 1566 archbishop of Canterbury-Thomas Parker, required priests in his Book of Advertisements to attend exhibition showing vestment must wear. Resulted in resignation of 37 Puritan priests-refused to attend church and wear new vestments as required.
How did Puritans respond to Catholics and bishops?
Were local group in English society. Puritans e.g. John Foxe, Thomas Cartwright and John Field were openly anti-Catholic and opposed bishops.
Where were Puritans active?
London, Cambridge, Oxford, and parts of East Anglia. Puritanism had less impact in North where people remained mostly Catholic in outlook
How did the government respond to Puritans?
Government ignored Puritan demands for reform of Church of England, including Admonition to Parliament in 1572, suggesting that Puritanism's support was limited.
What was the counter reformation?
Catholic Church's attempt to restore Protestant Reformation in Europe and stop its spread was known as the Counter Reformation. Protestants in Europe were charged with heresy (denying teachings of the Catholic Church).
What was the first step in the Catholic threat at home?
Counter Reformation in Europe attempts to reverse the spread of Protestantism.
What was the second step in the Catholic threat at home?
Catholic hostility towards Protestants.
What was the third step in the Catholic threat at home?
Pope instructs English Catholics nor to attend Church of England services/one-third of English nobility and large part of gentry are recusants. (Practiced Catholic religion in secret).
How did the Catholic nobility affect the Catholic threat?
Catholic nobility tended to be from traditional and powerful families that had prospered under Mary Tudor, e.g. Nevilles and the Percys. Resented their loss of influence under Elizabeth and disliked growing influence of her favorites, e.g. Sir William Cecil and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who saw as Protestants upstarts.
How did the nobility affect the Catholic threat?
Nobility in North were very influential and had always enjoyed freedom of action from Crown, so were well placed to incite rebellion against Elizabeth.
How had the Catholic threat increased?
Pope's instruction that Catholics weren't allowed to attend Church of England services. Gave them a powerful reason to rebel
How was France a threat to Elizabeth?
When religious war began in France in 1562, Elizabeth backed French Protestants, hoping to take back Calais in return. Yet this policy failed, as French Protestants made peace with Catholics later that year.
What was the Papacy?
Counter Reformation meant pope was prepared to end Protestant rule in England. He disapproved of steps that Elizabeth had taken to suppress Catholicism following the revolt of Northern Earls. Pope had already excommunicated. England in 1570. Could only encourage Catholic powers, e.g. France and Spain to attack England.
What is Excommunication
Formally excluded from Catholic church, unable to receive its sacraments.
How was Spain a threat to England?
1566 the Dutch rebelled against Spanish occupation Elizabeth outwardly commanded Dutch rebels, known as Sea Beggars, but many made way to England. Spanish atrocities against Protestants (hundreds killed in Netherlands), put Elizabeth under pressure to shelter rebels, who attacked Spanish ships in Channel.
Why were the Spanish angry with the English?
England's seizure of Genoese loan in 1568. Italian city of Genoa lent fold to Spanish government. Ships carrying loan sheltered in English ports, where Elizabeth seized it, arguing it belonged to Italian bankers not Spain.
How did Spanish rule in the Netherlands being secure in 1570 affect the Catholic challenge?
Privy council now feared Spanish invasion, as Spanish troops were in Spanish Netherlands close to England.
How did the presence of Mary Queen of Scots affect the Catholic challenge?
An alternative Catholic monarch encourage Spanish government to plot against Elizabeth.
What was Mary's claim to the throne?
Mary was Henry VII great-granddaughter and Elizabeth's second cousin. Descended from Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII sister, was Catholic and had legitimate claim to English throne. Was married French king, Francis II, and inherited Scottish crown when she was 6 days old. While in France her mother Mary of Guise ruled Scotland.
How was Mary's religion important?
Was Catholic, many nobles were Catholic-would support her claim to the throne.
How was Mary's legitimacy important?
No concerns of her legitimacy. Elizabeth's legitimacy was questioned by Catholics, however, as her mother Anne Boleyn's marriage to Henry VIII was seen by many Catholics as illegitimate. Undermined Elizabeth's claim to the throne.
How was Mary's position and power held against her?
Always to be centre of Catholic plots and conspiracies against Elizabeth. Involved both English plotters and foreign powers.
Why did Mary return to Scotland, who did she marry and why?
On death of Francis II in 1560, she returned to Scotland and married Henry Stuart (Lord Darnley), producing heir, James. Darnley was subsequently murdered (possibly with Mary's involvement), Mary then married Earl of Bothwell
What happened in Scotland after Mary's second marriage?
Many Scots assumed that Mary murdered Darnley, in 1568, rebelled against her, imprisoned her and forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James. Mary escaped and raised army, was defeated at Langside near Glasgow. Mary subsequently fled to England, seeking her cousin Elizabeth's help against Scottish rebels.
Why was Mary's imprisonment in England significant?
Mary held in England under guard while Elizabeth decided what to do with her. Scottish rebels demanded Mary handed over an tried for murder of Darnley.
How was Mary's arrival in England a problem?
By remaining in England she could encourage rebellion, as many members of Catholic nobility believed could overthrow Elizabeth and place Mary on throne. However, to take action against Mary, as anointed monarch, also reduce Elizabeth's own status, power and authority.
What were the possible problems with helping Mary regain her throne?
Helping Mary regain her throne would anger Scottish nobility and leave Elizabeth facing a Catholic monarch on her northern border. The Auld Alliance with France could then be revived to threaten her.
What were the possible problems in handing Mary over to the Scottish Lords?
Mary was former wife of Francis II. Her trial, imprisonment and execution by Scottish noble men with Elizabeth's permission could provoke France, driving them into alliance with Spain, which could lead both countries into war with England.
What were the problems with allowing Mary to go abroad?
Allowing Mary to go abroad could see her return to France. This could provoke French plot aimed to remove Elizabeth from English throne and replace her with Mary.
What were the problems with keeping Mary in England?
Probably best option for Elizabeth. However, carried risk that Catholic plotters might try to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary.
What was the Casket letters affair?
Meeting set up in York to hear case against Mary between October 1568 and January 1569.
What did Scottish lords bring?
Love letters, apparently demonstrating Mary was guilty of murdering Lord Darnley.
What was the conclusion of the casket letters affair?
Didn't reach any conclusions. Mary therefore stayed in England on captivity. Remained threat to Elizabeth because any plots against her especially those involving Catholics would seek to replace Elizabeth and Mary.
Why didn't Elizabeth make Mary her heir?
Further possibility Elizabeth acknowledge Mary as heir. To do so would upset protestants-privy council. Without privy councillors support, Elizabeth already distrusted by many Catholics-few supporters left. If Catholic heir, after Elizabeth death could lead to civil war.
Why did the northern earls rebel?
Earls and followers wanted England to be Catholic again. Especially resented appointment of James Pilkinton, a Protestant, as bishop of Durham in 1561.
Why did Northern earls rebel for court reasons?
Lost influence at court under Elizabeth. Resented 'new men' e.g. William Cecil.
Why did the northern earls rebel for heir reasons?
Elizabeth hadn't got married or had child or named a heir. Earls feared civil war and loss of power and wealth under future protestant monarch.
Who was Thomas Percy?
Earl of Northumberland-major Catholic northern landowner. Ann Percy was his wife.
Who was Charles Neville?
Earl of Westmoreland-major Catholic northern landowner. Jane Neville his wife.
Who was Thomas Howard?
Duke of Norfolk, a senior noble and Protestant, family links to old northern Catholic families. Planned to marry Mary Queen of Scots. Jane Neville is Duke of Norfolk sis
What was the marriage plan?
Mary marry Duke of Norfolk, depose Elizabeth, become queen. Told Spanish ambassador in 1569 will be queen of England in 3 months, and mass will be said all over the country. Robert Dudley told Elizabeth plot leading to Norfolk arrest and imprisonment in tower.
What was the progress of the revolt?
Northumberland and Westmoreland with wives supported and continued revolt. Took control of Durham cathedral, celebrating mass, as well as other northern churches and began to move south. Elizabeth moved Mary to Coventry to stop her joining rebels. Though rebels captured Hartlepool. Spain never arrived.
Why did the revolt fail?
Support from Spain never arrived, many northern landowners especially in Lancashire and Cheshire remained loyal to Elizabeth. Many landowners didn't want to risk losing wealth gained from dissolution of monestries under Henry VIII by backing failed revolt.