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Flashcards in Early Elizabethan England Deck (184):
1

What was Elizabeth's courts?

Made up of nobleman who acted as monarch's advisers and friends. Advised monarch and helped display her wealth and power. Members of court could also be members of the Privy Council.

2

What is justice without peace?

Large landowners appointed by government, who kept law and order locally and heard court cases.

3

Who were the Lord Lieutenants?

Noblemen, appointed by government, who governed English counties and raised local militia.

4

What was the privy council?

Members of nobility who helped govern country. They monitored parliament, Justices of the Peace and oversaw country.

5

What was parliament?

Advised Elizabeth's government, made up of House of Lords and House of Commons. House of lords was made up of noblemen and bishops. House of Commons was elected though very few people could vote. Parliament passed laws and approved taxes. (extraordinary taxation).

6

What is extraordinary taxation?

Extra taxes required to pay for unexpected expenses, especially war.

7

What is militia?

Force of ordinary people (not professional soldiers) raised in an emergency.

8

What was the social hierarchy in the countryside where 90% of England's population lived, from top to bottom?

Nobility, gentry, yeomen farmers, tenant farmers, landless and labouring poor, homeless and vagrants.

9

What was the social hierarchy of towns where 10% of England's population lived from top to bottom?

Merchants, professionals, business owners, craftsmen, unemployed.

10

Who were the nobility?

Major landowners; often lords, dukes and earls.

11

Who were the gentry?

Owned smaller estates.

12

Who were the yeomen farmers?

Owned small amount of land.

13

Who were tenant farmers?

Rented land from yeomen farmers and gentry.

14

Who were the landless and labouring poor?

People who didn't own or rent land, and had to work or labour to provide for themselves and their families.

15

Who were the homeless and vagrants?

Moved from place to place looking for work.

16

Who were the merchants?

Traders who were very wealthy.

17

Who were the professionals?

Lawyers, doctors and clergymen.

18

Who were business owners?

Often highly skilled craftsmen e.g. silversmiths, glovers (glove makers), carpenters or tailors.

19

Who were craftsmen?

Skilled employees, including apprentices.

20

Who were eh unskilled labourers and the unemployed?

People who had no regular work and couldn't provide for themselves and their families.

21

What was obedience and care?

Wherever were in Elizabethan society, owned and respect and obedience to those above you and had duty of care to those below. Landowners ran their estates according to these ideas. Ideally they would take care of their tenants, especially during times of hardship.

22

How did households work around obedience and care?

Households were run along similar lines to society. Husband and father was head of household. His wife, children and any servants were expected to be obedient to him.

23

What problems was Elizabeth facing when she became queen?

She was young and lacked experience, to pass laws she needed support of parliament, she was unmarried and was unusual for a queen to rule in her own right, as Christian tradition suggested women should follow men's authority. Many people disapproved of idea of queen regnant (queen who actually ruled), Elizabeth's government needed money, Elizabeth's legitimacy was in doubt as pope had refused to recognise her mother's marriage to Henry VIII, Catholics refused to acknowledge Elizabeth's right to rule England, Elizabeth was Protestant. Her predecessor, Mary was Catholic.

24

What key issues were facing Elizabeth in 1588?

Widely expected Elizabeth would marry. However, this would reduce her power, as husband would be expected to govern country and deal with parliament. Her inexperience meant she needed support and advice of Privy Council, especially her Secretary of State, Sir William Cecil. She could issue royal proclamations and had prerogative powers, enabling her to govern without parliament's consent especially in foreign policy. However, laws could only be passed with parliament's approval as Acts of Parliament.

25

What were the problems of marriage?

If Elizabeth married Protestant-anger Catholics. If married Catholic-anger Protestant. Marriage could involve England in expensive wars, damaging royal finances and requiring taxation. Yet marriage was important, Elizabeth needed heir. If died without heir, throne would be vacant-could lead to civil war.

26

How much was the crown in debt by 1588?

£300,000

27

What were Elizabeth's strengths and character?

Confident-enabled her to win over her subjects and command support in parliament. Resilient-spent time in Tower accused of treason and facing possible execution. Could cope with pressures of being queen. Well educated spoke Latin Greek French and Italian. Had excellent grasp on politics, understood interests and ambitions of subjects, was able to use her powers of patronage effectively. Was Protestant, number of Protestants was growing, making her more secure. Could claim divine right with growing conviction.

28

What was Reinventing the role?

Elizabeth was able to use strengths to reinvent herself as different type of monarch. Liked to demonstrate that, event though was female, was no ordinary woman. Therefore argued she didn't need to marry and could govern England independently.

29

What was Elizabeth's propaganda?

Throughout reign, Elizabeth was happy to portray herself as strong legitimate, popular monarch and a 'Virgin Queen'-married only to England and not prince or King. Reflected in paintings.

30

What is a charismatic leader?

Someone who possesses great personal appeal and can use this to win people over.

31

What is a legitimate ruler?

Someone who is legally and morally entitled to rule.

32

What is the divine right?

Idea that God alone appointed monarch, meaning to challenge monarch was to challenge God. Successful monarchs claimed divine providence of their actions, reinforcing their legitimacy. Less successful monarchs could face charges of Godly disapproval and find their legitimacy undermined.

33

What is a Protestant?

Christians who no longer accept the authority of the pope and many of the teachings of the Catholic Church. During Reformation Protestants, under Martin Luther seceded the Catholic Church and this resulted in religious wars in France/Germany.

34

What is patronage?

Monarch could use granting of lands, jobs and titles to reward her supporters. People who received these positions could use them to become wealthy.

35

What was the crowns debt and annual income in 1558?

Debt: £300,000
Annual income: £286,667

36

Where was the debt owed to?

Over £100,000 owed to foreign money lenders (Antwerp exchange)-charged 14% interest.

37

How did Mary Tudor contribute to the debt?

Sold off Crown lands to pay for wars in France, so crown's income was falling.

38

What other financial problems was Elizabeth facing?

Needed money to remain secure on throne, as could use it to reward her supporters. Since 1540, Crown had debased (devalued) coinage, by reducing its silver and gold content, in order to make more money to fight wars against France. Resulted in inflation, as value of currency fell.

39

How could monarchs raise money?

Rents and income from their lands (crown lands), taxes from trade, special additional taxes, known as subsidies, which had to be agreed by parliament, profits of justice, loans.

40

What are the positives and negatives of raising taxes?

Queen could convene parliament and ask for subsidies, additional taxes would be unpopular with ordinary people, increasing risk of unrest.

41

What are the effects of Elizabeth's policies?

In spite of her careful management of Crown's finances, was limited reform. Parliamentary grants were raised locally, with many landowners acting as Lord Lieutenants and Justices of the Peace, pocketing some of proceeds before rest sent to Crown. Meant ordinary people faced heavier financial burden while wealthy benefited.

42

What are the positives and negatives of improving the quality of money by increasing the gold and silver content in the coinage?

In 1560, Thomas Gresham, Crown's financial adviser, suggested to William Cecil, but crown was slow to respond. Any new coinage would be traded alongside older, less valuable coins. People would struggle to exchange older coins for new coins.

43

What did Elizabeth do to solve financial problems?

Didn't raise taxes, but instead hoarded her income and cut her household expenses by half. Like her predecessors, she sold Crown lands, raising £120,000. By 1574, queen could claim crown was out of debt for first time sine 1558.

44

What was the French threat?

France was wealthier than England and had a bigger population. Elizabeth's cousin-Mary, was married to the French King, Francis II. Mary had a strong claim to the English throne and English Catholics might rally to her if the French invaded.

45

What is the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis?

England had lost Calais to France. Was England's last remaining territory in mainland Europe, was pressure on Elizabeth to regain it. However, war with France would be expensive and dangerous.

46

What was the Auld Alliance?

France's alliance with Scotland threatened England, Mary of Guise (James V widow), who ruled Scotland on behalf of her daughter, Mary Queen of Scots, kept French soldiers there, who could attack England. Relationship between France and Scotland was further strengthened by marriage of Francis II to Mary Queen of Scots in 1559.

47

How was the fact that France had ended its war with Spain became a challenge for Elizabeth?

French military resources were no longer stretched by war with Spain, making a war with England more likely. Was also possibility that France and Spain, both Catholic countries, would unite against Protestant England. Spain also had troops in the Netherlands, not far from England.

48

How did war being expensive become a challenge?

Crown was in debt. England couldn't afford a war with France, Scotland or Spain, as would be ruinously expensive and deepen government's debts.

49

How did Elizabeth deal with the challenges from abroad?

Elizabeth did her best to avoid upsetting Europe's most powerful countries. She sought to avoid war with France by signing the Peace of Troyes(1564), which recognised once and for all the French claim to Calais. Elizabeth was able to deal with threat posed by Scotland by placing Mary who fled Scotland in 1568 in custody in England. By imprisoning Mary and making peace with France, Elizabeth had only 1 significant threat by 1569:Spain

50

Why was religion important in Elizabethan England for life and ceremonies?

Central to life in England. Religious teachings and practices guided morals and behaviors as well as understanding of world. Birth, marriage and death were all marked by religious ceremonies.

51

Why was church and religious festivals important.

Believed going to Church, attending pilgrimages and confessing sins reduced time in purgatory. Religious festivals e.g. St Swithn's Day (15th July) and Lammas Day (2nd August) marked agricultural year and were seen as essential to a good harvest.

52

What religious divisions were in England and Europe in the 16th century?

Reformation divided Christians to Catholics and Protestants in 1517. North of England remained largely Catholic. Some Protestants became puritans-wanted to purify Christianity-getting rid of anything not in bible. Since 1530s many Protestants fleeing persecution in Europe had landed in England, settling in London, East Anglia and Kent. Number of English Protestant growing.

53

What were Catholic beliefs?

Pope is head of Church helped by cardinals, bishops and priests, Church is intermediary(go between)God and people. Can forgive sins. During mass bread and wine become actual body and blood of Christ. 7 sacraments, priests are celibate.

54

What are the Catholic practices?

Services in Latin, Priests wear vestments, church highly decorated.

55

Who was the Catholic support?

Catholics majority in North and West of England.

56

What are Protestant beliefs?

No pope. May be necessary to have archbishops or bishops, personal direct relationship with God via prayer and Bible. Only God can forgive sins. Bread and wine simply represent body and blood of Christ. There is no miracle. 2 sacraments: Baptism and Holly Communion. Priests can marry.

57

What are the Protestant practices?

Services in English, priests wear simple vestments, church plain and simple.

58

Where is the Protestant support?

Mostly south-east England.

59

What are Puritan beliefs?

Nearly same as Protestants however, there are no popes, cardinals or bishops.

60

What are the Puritan practices?

Nearly same as Protestant however, Churches whitewashed with no decorations.

61

Where is the Puritan support?

London and East Anglia.

62

What was the Act of Supremacy?

Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of the Church of England. All clergy and royal officials had to swear an oath of allegiance to her.

63

What was An Ecclesiastical High Commission?

Established to keep discipline within Church and enforce Elizabeth's religious settlement. Disloyal clergy could be punished.

64

What was The Book of Common Prayer (1559)?

Introduced set church service to be used in all churches. Clergy had to follow the Prayer Book wording during services or be punished.

65

What were The Royal Injunctions?

Set of instructions to clergy that reinforced the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity. Included instructions on how people should worship God and how religious services were to be conducted.

66

What were the aims of Elizabeth's religious settlement?

Inclusive and designed to be accepted by as many of her subjects as possible. Wording of the new Prayer Book could be understood to mean different things by Catholics and Protestants.

67

What was the Communion Sacrament?

Referred to in Book of Common Prayer could be interpreted as body and blood of Jesus. Would have appealed to Catholics, while Protestants could view it as an act of remembrance.

68

What were further reactions to Elizabeth's religious settlement?

Protestants would have approved of ban on pilgrimages to 'fake' miracles, while Catholics would have approve of possibility of 'real miracles'. Catholics would also have approved of use of candles, crosses and vestments in Church services.

69

What was the impact of the religious settlement?

8,000 clergy out of 10,000 accepted religious settlement. Many Marian Bishops (Catholic Bishops appointed by Mary Tudor) opposed settlement and had to be replaced. Majority of ordinary people accepted Elizabeth's religious settlement and attended church services, even though many held on to Catholic beliefs.

70

What were the royal injunctions?

Stated all clergy were required to: teach the Royal Supremacy, report those refusing to attend church to the Privy Council-absentees were fined a week's wages, keep a copy of the Bible in English, have a government licence to preach, prevent pilgrimages, religious shrines and monuments to 'fake' miracles, wears special clothes (vestments).

71

How did the Church preach the government's message?

Priests needed government's licence to preach. Ensured clergy preached Elizabeth's religious and political message, as those who refused to do so would be denied a licence.

72

How did the Church provide guidance for communities?

Parish church helped people in times of hardship and uncertainty.

73

How was the Church responsible for Church Courts?

These dealt with marriage, sexual offences, slander(fake insults), wills and inheritance.

74

How was the church responsible for visitations?

Bishops carried out inspections of churches and clergy to ensure they obeyed the religious settlement. These took place every 3-4 years. Visitations also involved checking licences of physicians, midwives and surgeons.

75

How was the church responsible for legitimising Elizabeth's rule?

Church encouraged people to remain loyal to and not rebel against their monarch.

76

How the local clergy important in village services?

In parishes, Clergyman was major figure in village community and conducted church services, including baptisms, weddings and funerals.

77

What advice did the clergy offer?

Spiritual and practical advice and guidance to people, especially when times were difficult.

78

How were the clergy affected by taxes?

Clergy funded by taxes or tithes (tax worth 10% of people's income or goods produced), or by other sources of income, e.g. sale of church pews. Gentry funded some parishes while others remained independent of local landowners.

79

How did parishes affect town life?

Contained much wider collection of people, including merchants, craftsmen, laborers and vagrants. Often a wider range of religious beliefs too, especially in London, which contained mainstream Protestants, Puritans and Catholics.

80

How did the clergy affect town life?

Varied between towns. In London, wide variety of parishes existed, some of which were very wealthy while others were relatively poor.

81

How did parishes respond to overcrowding?

Had wider range of issues to deal with than was case in rural parishes. Included poverty, vagrancy and diseases, such as smallpox and plague.

82

Who were the puritans?

Radical Protestants who wanted to 'purify' Christianity by getting rid of anything that wasn't in the bible.

83

What were puritan teachings?

Develop own church, wouldn't be controlled by queen. No Bishops/priests priests not wear vestments. Make world 'more godly' place-banning 'sinful' activities e.g. gambling. Wanted simpler worship, whitewashed churches no 'graven images' (Worship of religious idols)-crucifixes and statues-seen as ungodly and too Catholic. Minority believed monarch overthrown in certain circumstances. Especially if monarch was Catholic. Many were anti-Catholic, pope was anti-Christ. Millenrains puritans believed world was ending, that Christians had to prepare for Jesus' return.

84

How did crucifixes affect puritan worship?

Elizabeth, anxious no to upset Catholic subjects, demanded crucifix placed in each church. Puritans opposed this, when some Puritan bishops threatened to resign, Elizabeth backed down-couldn't replace them with educated protestant clergy of similar ability.

85

How did vestments affect Protestant worship?

Elizabeth wanted clergy to wear special vestments, as described in Royal Injections. Puritans resisted this, arguing clergy should either wear no vestments/simple vestments. 1566 archbishop of Canterbury-Thomas Parker, required priests in his Book of Advertisements to attend exhibition showing vestment must wear. Resulted in resignation of 37 Puritan priests-refused to attend church and wear new vestments as required.

86

How did Puritans respond to Catholics and bishops?

Were local group in English society. Puritans e.g. John Foxe, Thomas Cartwright and John Field were openly anti-Catholic and opposed bishops.

87

Where were Puritans active?

London, Cambridge, Oxford, and parts of East Anglia. Puritanism had less impact in North where people remained mostly Catholic in outlook

88

How did the government respond to Puritans?

Government ignored Puritan demands for reform of Church of England, including Admonition to Parliament in 1572, suggesting that Puritanism's support was limited.

89

What was the counter reformation?

Catholic Church's attempt to restore Protestant Reformation in Europe and stop its spread was known as the Counter Reformation. Protestants in Europe were charged with heresy (denying teachings of the Catholic Church).

90

What was the first step in the Catholic threat at home?

Counter Reformation in Europe attempts to reverse the spread of Protestantism.

91

What was the second step in the Catholic threat at home?

Catholic hostility towards Protestants.

92

What was the third step in the Catholic threat at home?

Pope instructs English Catholics nor to attend Church of England services/one-third of English nobility and large part of gentry are recusants. (Practiced Catholic religion in secret).

93

How did the Catholic nobility affect the Catholic threat?

Catholic nobility tended to be from traditional and powerful families that had prospered under Mary Tudor, e.g. Nevilles and the Percys. Resented their loss of influence under Elizabeth and disliked growing influence of her favorites, e.g. Sir William Cecil and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who saw as Protestants upstarts.

94

How did the nobility affect the Catholic threat?

Nobility in North were very influential and had always enjoyed freedom of action from Crown, so were well placed to incite rebellion against Elizabeth.

95

How had the Catholic threat increased?

Pope's instruction that Catholics weren't allowed to attend Church of England services. Gave them a powerful reason to rebel

96

How was France a threat to Elizabeth?

When religious war began in France in 1562, Elizabeth backed French Protestants, hoping to take back Calais in return. Yet this policy failed, as French Protestants made peace with Catholics later that year.

97

What was the Papacy?

Counter Reformation meant pope was prepared to end Protestant rule in England. He disapproved of steps that Elizabeth had taken to suppress Catholicism following the revolt of Northern Earls. Pope had already excommunicated. England in 1570. Could only encourage Catholic powers, e.g. France and Spain to attack England.

98

What is Excommunication

Formally excluded from Catholic church, unable to receive its sacraments.

99

How was Spain a threat to England?

1566 the Dutch rebelled against Spanish occupation Elizabeth outwardly commanded Dutch rebels, known as Sea Beggars, but many made way to England. Spanish atrocities against Protestants (hundreds killed in Netherlands), put Elizabeth under pressure to shelter rebels, who attacked Spanish ships in Channel.

100

Why were the Spanish angry with the English?

England's seizure of Genoese loan in 1568. Italian city of Genoa lent fold to Spanish government. Ships carrying loan sheltered in English ports, where Elizabeth seized it, arguing it belonged to Italian bankers not Spain.

101

How did Spanish rule in the Netherlands being secure in 1570 affect the Catholic challenge?

Privy council now feared Spanish invasion, as Spanish troops were in Spanish Netherlands close to England.

102

How did the presence of Mary Queen of Scots affect the Catholic challenge?

An alternative Catholic monarch encourage Spanish government to plot against Elizabeth.

103

What was Mary's claim to the throne?

Mary was Henry VII great-granddaughter and Elizabeth's second cousin. Descended from Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII sister, was Catholic and had legitimate claim to English throne. Was married French king, Francis II, and inherited Scottish crown when she was 6 days old. While in France her mother Mary of Guise ruled Scotland.

104

How was Mary's religion important?

Was Catholic, many nobles were Catholic-would support her claim to the throne.

105

How was Mary's legitimacy important?

No concerns of her legitimacy. Elizabeth's legitimacy was questioned by Catholics, however, as her mother Anne Boleyn's marriage to Henry VIII was seen by many Catholics as illegitimate. Undermined Elizabeth's claim to the throne.

106

How was Mary's position and power held against her?

Always to be centre of Catholic plots and conspiracies against Elizabeth. Involved both English plotters and foreign powers.

107

Why did Mary return to Scotland, who did she marry and why?

On death of Francis II in 1560, she returned to Scotland and married Henry Stuart (Lord Darnley), producing heir, James. Darnley was subsequently murdered (possibly with Mary's involvement), Mary then married Earl of Bothwell

108

What happened in Scotland after Mary's second marriage?

Many Scots assumed that Mary murdered Darnley, in 1568, rebelled against her, imprisoned her and forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James. Mary escaped and raised army, was defeated at Langside near Glasgow. Mary subsequently fled to England, seeking her cousin Elizabeth's help against Scottish rebels.

109

Why was Mary's imprisonment in England significant?

Mary held in England under guard while Elizabeth decided what to do with her. Scottish rebels demanded Mary handed over an tried for murder of Darnley.

110

How was Mary's arrival in England a problem?

By remaining in England she could encourage rebellion, as many members of Catholic nobility believed could overthrow Elizabeth and place Mary on throne. However, to take action against Mary, as anointed monarch, also reduce Elizabeth's own status, power and authority.

111

What were the possible problems with helping Mary regain her throne?

Helping Mary regain her throne would anger Scottish nobility and leave Elizabeth facing a Catholic monarch on her northern border. The Auld Alliance with France could then be revived to threaten her.

112

What were the possible problems in handing Mary over to the Scottish Lords?

Mary was former wife of Francis II. Her trial, imprisonment and execution by Scottish noble men with Elizabeth's permission could provoke France, driving them into alliance with Spain, which could lead both countries into war with England.

113

What were the problems with allowing Mary to go abroad?

Allowing Mary to go abroad could see her return to France. This could provoke French plot aimed to remove Elizabeth from English throne and replace her with Mary.

114

What were the problems with keeping Mary in England?

Probably best option for Elizabeth. However, carried risk that Catholic plotters might try to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary.

115

What was the Casket letters affair?

Meeting set up in York to hear case against Mary between October 1568 and January 1569.

116

What did Scottish lords bring?

Love letters, apparently demonstrating Mary was guilty of murdering Lord Darnley.

117

What was the conclusion of the casket letters affair?

Didn't reach any conclusions. Mary therefore stayed in England on captivity. Remained threat to Elizabeth because any plots against her especially those involving Catholics would seek to replace Elizabeth and Mary.

118

Why didn't Elizabeth make Mary her heir?

Further possibility Elizabeth acknowledge Mary as heir. To do so would upset protestants-privy council. Without privy councillors support, Elizabeth already distrusted by many Catholics-few supporters left. If Catholic heir, after Elizabeth death could lead to civil war.

119

Why did the northern earls rebel?

Earls and followers wanted England to be Catholic again. Especially resented appointment of James Pilkinton, a Protestant, as bishop of Durham in 1561.

120

Why did Northern earls rebel for court reasons?

Lost influence at court under Elizabeth. Resented 'new men' e.g. William Cecil.

121

Why did the northern earls rebel for heir reasons?

Elizabeth hadn't got married or had child or named a heir. Earls feared civil war and loss of power and wealth under future protestant monarch.

122

Who was Thomas Percy?

Earl of Northumberland-major Catholic northern landowner. Ann Percy was his wife.

123

Who was Charles Neville?

Earl of Westmoreland-major Catholic northern landowner. Jane Neville his wife.

124

Who was Thomas Howard?

Duke of Norfolk, a senior noble and Protestant, family links to old northern Catholic families. Planned to marry Mary Queen of Scots. Jane Neville is Duke of Norfolk sis

125

What was the marriage plan?

Mary marry Duke of Norfolk, depose Elizabeth, become queen. Told Spanish ambassador in 1569 will be queen of England in 3 months, and mass will be said all over the country. Robert Dudley told Elizabeth plot leading to Norfolk arrest and imprisonment in tower.

126

What was the progress of the revolt?

Northumberland and Westmoreland with wives supported and continued revolt. Took control of Durham cathedral, celebrating mass, as well as other northern churches and began to move south. Elizabeth moved Mary to Coventry to stop her joining rebels. Though rebels captured Hartlepool. Spain never arrived.

127

Why did the revolt fail?

Support from Spain never arrived, many northern landowners especially in Lancashire and Cheshire remained loyal to Elizabeth. Many landowners didn't want to risk losing wealth gained from dissolution of monestries under Henry VIII by backing failed revolt.

128

What was the revolt's significance?

Showed Mary Queen of Scots couldn't be trusted-remaiened in prison. Pope excommunicated Elizabeth and called on loyal Catholics to depose. Encouraged further Catholic plots against her. Loyalty of England's Catholics was now in doubt, facing government to take harsh steps against them. Elizabeth's control over north was strengthened.

129

What did the papal bull and the northern earl's rebellion lead the privy council to do?

Treat Catholics with suspicion.

130

What did the Earl of Huntington do?

Was Protestant, implemented many laws against Catholics in the north. This angered Catholics-prepared Pope's backing to plot against Elizabeth.

131

How was Roberto Ridolfi?

An Italian banker living in England and a spy for the Pope.

132

What was Ridolfi's plan?

Murder Elizabeth, start a Spanish invasion, put Mary on throne. Mary would marry the Duke of Norfolk.

133

How did preparations for the Ridolfi plot plan out?

In March 1571 Ridolfi went to Holland to discuss plot with pope, Philip II and Duke of Alba. Ridolfi had signed letter from Norfolk where he declared himself as Catholic and pledged lead in rebellion with Philip II support. Philip II instructed Duke of Alba to prepare 10,000 troops to send across English Channel in support of revolt.

134

How was the Ridolfi plot uncovered?

Sir William Cecil discovered plot by autumn 1571, able to prove Norfolk of high treason. Ridolfi remained abroad and never came back.

135

What were the implications of the Ridolfi plot?

Parliament demanded execution of Mary and Norfolk. Elizabeth signed Norfolk's death warrant leading to his execution in June 1572. Elizabeth reluctant to punish Mary, even refused to remove her from succession. Executing Mary would anger English Catholics, and possibly unite France and Spain 2 large Catholic powers.

136

What was the significance of the Ridolfi plot?

Confirmed Mary, English Catholics remained threat, reinforced Philip II as threat. Government now monitored Catholics more closely. 2 laws passed in 1581, meant that families could be fined for sheltering priests and charged with treason if converted people to Catholicism. Threat of Spain meant had to increase relations with France-England couldn't fight both countries at once.

137

What was the Throckmorton plot in 1583?

French duke of Guise, cousin of Mary plotted to invade England, overthrow Elizabeth, put Mary on throne and make England Catholic again Philip II agreed to help pay, and Pope approved. Francis Throckmorton, young Englishman would pass letters from plotters and Mary.

138

How did the Throckmorton plot fail?

Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth's secretary of state discovered plot in May 1583. November 1583 Walsingham's spies found papers at Throckmorton's house that revealed plot in conspiracy. Throckmorton was arrested, tortured. He confessed to his involvement and was executed in May 1584.

139

Why was the Throckmorton plot significant?

Revelaed threat of foreign/English Catholics and Mary. Elizabeth had to be careful with Spain and France didn't unite against her. Throckmorton papers included list of Catholic sympathisers in England-government's fear of 'enemy within'. More suspicious of English Catholics. Many fled England after plot. Up to 11,000 imprisoned, or house arrest. An act of parliament of 1585 made helping or sheltering catholic priest punishable by death.

140

What was the information behind the Babington plot?

Duke of Guise would invade England murder Elizabeth and put Mary on throne, Philip and Pope supported plot. Anthony Babington, a Catholic, wrote to Mary in July 1586 about conspiracy.

141

What happened as a result of the Babington plot?

Sir Francis Walsingham intercepted and read Babington's letters to Mary, clearly demonstrated her awareness of, support for and involvement in conspiracy. Babington and plotters sentenced to death and hanged, drawn and quartered.

142

Why was the Babington plot significant?

Elizabeth's situation was more precarious than with previous plots. By 1585, England Spain were virtually at war. Elizabeth's government became determined to crush Catholic threat. Persecution of Catholic intensified. In 1585 11,00 Catholics were imprisoned or house arrest. 31 priests were executed around the country in 1586.

143

What did the Babington plot lead to ?

Execution of Mary ending any hope of replacing Elizabeth with Catholic heir.

144

Why was Walsingham important

His actions provided intelligence that defended plots, such as Throckmorton plot and Babington plot. His intelligence unmasked activities of Mary. This put pressure on Elizabeth's execute her and led to Mary execution in 1587. Actions deterred further plots.

145

What was Walsingham's spy network?

Had spies in every town. Some paid and trained by government. Others were paid informants. Often people who knew or were likely to know potential plotters against queen. Sometimes Catholic priests, e.g. John Hart, turned information in return for royal pardon. Used spies abroad in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and North Africa.

146

How did Walsingham use ciphers (codes)?

For all correspondences. Meant letters be written in code and translated out of code once received. Walsingham also had means of decoding codes of plotters. Hired specialities e.g. Thomas Phelippes to aide him.

147

How did Walsingham use torture and execution?

Some Priests tortured to deter others and force them to give up information. Under Walsingham, 130 priests and 60 of their supporters were put to death. Threat of execution and torture was often more effective, as would provide Walsingham with informants he could use against plotters. Only used torture and execution in most serious cases, as didn't want ordinary people to sympathise with plotters.

148

Who were the agent provocateurs?

Used by Walsingham to encourage those seen as threat. Justified arrest and execution. E.g. Walsingham used Gilbert Gifford to open communications between Mary and Babington plotters. Encouraged Mary to involve herself in plot, leading to her execution.

149

What did Mary do to justify her execution?

Involved in series of plots.

150

How did Walsingham help bring evidence against Mary?

His spies unearthed evidence of Mary being involved in plots. Led to her trial and conviction under Act of Preservation of Queen's safety.

151

How did the Spanish threat help to execute Mary?

Were rumours of invasion. Philip II been involved in plots heightened threat threat of Mary.

152

How was Mary being a figurehead for English Catholics a threat?

Catholics saw her as legitimate Queen.

153

How did the Papal Bull lead to Mary's execution?

Pope excommunicated Elizabeth in 1570, making Mary alternative for Catholics who could take throne by foreign invasion.

154

How did Mary's on lead to her execution?

Mary had a (Catholic) son who would be heir to the English throne. This threatened Protestant succession while creating possibility of civil war.

155

Why was Mary being a monarch significant to her invasion?

Executing her would be dangerous. Elizabeth in wrong circumstances could meet similar fate. So execution made Elizabeth and her heirs more vulnerable in future.

156

How was Philip II interested in the execution?

It angered Philip II further reason to attack England, as Mary left her claim to the throne to Philip on her death.

157

How was succession significant to Mary's execution?

Left no heir increasing chances of civil war on her death.

158

Who was Mary's execution important to Elizabeth's threat?

Removed important threat to Elizabeth, as was now alternative monarch to replace her.

159

What religious rivalries where there between England and Spain?

Under Mary Tudor, Spain and England were allies. As a Protestant country under Elizabeth, England's relationship with Spain caused: Philip || backed by Pope, saw Protestantism as threat to authority of Catholic Church. Many English Protestants saw Spain and Catholicism as threat. Philip || of Spain became involved in Catholic plots against Elizabeth.

160

How did Spain's policy in the Netherlands affect relations with Spain and England?

Netherlands under Spanish rule since 1400s. Many Dutch became Protestant. Brutal Spanish campaign under Duke of Alba aimed to restore Catholicism. Spanish Catholics executed many Dutch Protestants following Council of Troubles in 1568. Spain's campaign in Netherlands angered many in Elizabeth's government, who now saw Spain as hostile-direct threat to English Protestantism and to England.

161

How did England respond to Spain's policy in the Netherlands?

Elizabeth's government decided to secretly help Dutch Protestants resist Spanish. Allowed Dutch rebel ships safe passage in English ports. Provided financial support to others fighting Spanish, including volunteers led by John Casimir, a foreign mercenary. English privateers, e.g. Francis Drake were encouraged to attack Spanish shipping and colonies in Latin America. Elizabeth even proposed marriage to French heir, Duke of Alençon, so he might be persuaded to fight Spain in the Netherlands.

162

What was the Spanish Fury and the Pacification of Gent?

By 1576, Spanish government in Netherlands found war there unaffordable. Lack of funds meant Spanish troops went unpaid. Resulted in Spanish Fury, when Spanish troops looted Antwerp. After looting, all 17 Dutch provinces joined an alliance against Spanish, drawn up in document called Pacification of Gent. Called for all Spanish troops to be expelled from Netherlands.

163

How did Spain restore its influence on the Netherlands?

By late 1684: Spanish control of Netherlands had been restored under Duke of Parma. England's allies, Duke of Alençon and William of Orange, were dead. Treaty of Joinville (1584) united Catholic France and Spain against Netherlands and England. Dutch Catholics were ready to make peace with Spain, strengthening Philip ||'s position there.

164

How were England and Spain close to war?

By 1587, England and Spain were close to war. Philip || blamed English support of Dutch rebels for making situation worse. Philip || blamed privateers for attacks on Spanish shipping. Elizabeth's government blamed Spain for a series of plots against Elizabeth.

165

Who were privateers?

Sailors on privately owned warships who attacked Spanish shipping. Because ships were privately owned, Elizabeth could deny responsibility for their actions.

166

How was it by the 1570s England and Spain had emerged as commercial rivals?

Both competed against each other for access to markets and resources of New World, as well as to markets in Turkey, Europe, Russia, China and North Africa.

167

How did Spain use the New World to their advantage in the trade war with England?

Spain conquered Mexico and Peru by early 1500s. Provided Spain with vast amounts of gold and silver, which were regularly shipped back to Spain. Also gave Spain control over trade in sugar cane and tobacco.

168

How was shipping materials from the New World trouble for Spain?

By Elizabeth's rule, Britain had emerged as a trade rival. Sailors, including Francis Drake, were journeying great distances on trading voyages to different parts of world.

169

How was England hostile towards Spain?

Spain controlled Netherlands and Scheldt and Rhine estuaries closed off 1 of principal trade routes used by English traders in Europe-reduced incomes and profits of English merchants. Spain's control of New World also denied English traders profit-making opportunities, because all trade had to be licensed by Spanish. English traders' efforts to find ways of making money brought them into conflict with Spanish.

170

How did privateering affect Spanish trade?

English merchants financed by private investors including Elizabeth raided Spanish ships. In 1

171

How did relations between Spanish and English worsen?

By early 1580s actions of Drake and other privateers brought England and Spain on brink of war. Elizabeth, by knighting Drake demonstrated he defiance of and hostility towards Spain's commercial interests in Europe and New World. Her actions showed support of financial losses suffered by Spain as result of privateering. For Philip ||, privateers little more than pirates who needed to be removed by war if necessary. Getting rid of Elizabeth and Drake by war was only remaining means of protecting Spain's commercial interests.

172

How did relations between Spanish and English worsen?

By early 1580s actions of Drake and other privateers brought England and Spain on brink of war. Elizabeth, by knighting Drake demonstrated he defiance of and hostility towards Spain's commercial interests in Europe and New World. Her actions showed support of financial losses suffered by Spain as result of privateering. For Philip ||, privateers little more than pirates who needed to be removed by war if necessary. Getting rid of Elizabeth and Drake by war was only remaining means of protecting Spain's commercial intrests.

173

What were the factors that led England to go to war with Spain?

England signed Treaty of Nonsuch in August 1585 with Dutch Protestants rebels. Made war with Spain more likely. By terms of treaty, England would pay for army of 7,400 English soldiers, led by English commander-Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester-would work with rebels' government, the Council of State. Was likely that group would fight Spanish, although war hadn't been formally declared.

174

What was the campaign in the Netherlands?

Elizabeth still hoped to negotiate with Philip ||. England not formally at war with Spain and so Leicester not given enough resources to defeat Spanish. Some of Dudley's officers, William Stanley and Robert York defected to Spanish side. Damaged relations with Dutch rebels. Dudley and Elizabeth had different aims in Netherlands. Dudley wanted to end Spanish rule, making Netherlands independent. Elizabeth wanted to go back to how Netherlands had been governed in 1548 when remained under Spanish control but with certain freedoms given.

175

What were the results of the campaign?

Dudley could only disrupt Spanish forces in Netherlands under Duke of Parma. He couldn't defeat them. Dudley did manage to stop Spanish from capturing deep-water port, Ostend, on English Channel. Was important because denied Spanish Armada chance to link up with Duke of Parma's troops in 1588.

176

What was the 'Singeing the king of Spain's beard'?

Since January 1586, Spain gradually building up Armada, enormous fleet was due to help Spanish invade England. In March 1587, Elizabeth ordered Drake to attack Spanish navy. Between 19 and 22 April, attacked Cadiz, major Spanish naval hub, destroying 30 ships and much of fleet's supplies. Known as 'singeing of the King of Spain's beard'. Drake continued to attack Spanish coastal naval ports and treasure ships.

177

What was the importance of Drake's attacks on Cadiz and Spain?

Spain had to take break from building Armada in order to defend itself against Drake. Disruption Drake caused didn't stop Armada, but delayed it by 1 year. Brought England more time to prepare for eventual Spanish attack and invasion in 1588.

178

What were the religious reasons as to why Philip || launched the invasion?

Was a devout Catholic, already failed to get rid of Elizabeth. Armada and invasion gave him opportunity to remove her and place Catholic on English throne. The papacy had wanted to overthrow Elizabeth since excommunicating her in 1570. Pope promised absolution (forgive sins) to those taking part in Armada.

179

What were the political and diplomatic reasons for the Armada?

Treaty of Joinville (1584) meant Spanish could attack English without risking war with France. Treaty of Nonsuch (1585) meant English soldiers were at war with Spain, so Philip could justify attacking England. England would be a useful addition to Philip's empire, as would give Spain complete control of the Atlantic

180

What were the acts of provocation to invade England?

Drake's actions in New World threatened Spanish commercial interests. Elizabeth's support for Dutch rebels challenged Spanish interests there.

181

What were the changing circumstances for Philip to invade England?

Spain acquired Portugal in 1580, giving Philip || access to Portuguese ports and ships. Duke of Parma's success in Netherlands since 1579 meant Spain's position there was secure. Elizabeth's hesitation to fully back Dutch rebels was sign of weakness and encouragement Philip || had to attack.

182

What was Philip || strategy in Armada?

Philip ordered Armada (130 ships and 2431 guns) to sail along the English Channel to Netherlands. Then, ships join forces with Spanish troops under Parma and transport 27000 troops to Kent/ Spanish army attack London, end Elizabeth reign, establish new Catholic government.

183

What were Philip || tactics?

For invasion to succeed, Spanish needed control of English Channel to transport Parma's troops to England. Was vital English Navy didn't disrupt Spanish shipping as Spanish had bigger and better army than English and likely to defeat them if landed successfully in Kent.

184

Why was the Armada such a threat?

If it succeeded Elizabeth lose her throne (maybe life as well). For English Protestants, including her Privy councillors, successful invasion meant restoration of Catholicism in England and persecution of Protestants. For many, war with Spain was life and death struggle to preserve their religion and their lives.