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Flashcards in Earth Deck (87):
1

Fault

A break or fracture in the crust of the earth

2

Seismograph

How earthquakes are measured. The size and strength of the seismic waves that are released during an earthquake

3

Earthquake

Shaking or trembling of the earth caused by movement along a fault

4

Uplift

Upward movement of earths crust (mountains)

5

Tsunami

Earthquake underwater

6

Topographic map

2 dimensional model of the earths surface
Also known as contour maps

7

Relief

Difference between high and low elevations

8

Contour line

A line on a map that connects point of equal evaluation and shape of land

9

How was the theory of plate tectonics developed in the 1960s

Combining theories of the continental drift and sea floor spreading

10

The crust

The thin outer layer of earth known as the lithosphere

11

The asthenosphere

The upper liquid part of the mantle

12

Tectonic plate

The sections the crust and the upper mantle are broken into that move on a plastic like layer of the mantle

13

How is a earthquake made

The motion of the upper mantle is the main force threat causes the tectonic plates to move

14

Convergent

When an oceanic plate converges with the less dense continental plate, the denser oceanic plate subducts or goes down into the mantle is called the subduction zone

15

Transform

Transform boundaries occur where two plates slide right past one another. They move in opposite directions or in the same direction at different rates

16

Divergent

The boundary between two plates that are moving apart is called a divergent boundary

17

The thick line on a topographical map

Index contour line

18

Evidence for the continental drift

Fossils. Climate. Landforms

19

What is a convection current

Convection nuclear motion of water or air. Gets hot, then cold, then hot again. Convection currents are in the mantle. Convection does not touch anything

20

What are three types of heat transfer

Radiation. Conduction. Convection.

21

What is radiation transferred through

Empty space, does not need contact

22

Does conduction touch things

Yes

23

Does convection touch things

No

24

The layer of rock it earth surface is called the

Lithosphere

25

A large Area of earth surface is covered with

Hydrosphere

26

All rocks are made of solid components called

Minerals

27

Mineral can be identified it by what properties

physical and chemical

28

What is the minerals streak

The color of its powder

29

How are rocks classified

By their method of formation

30

What type of rock are pebbles cemented together

Sedimentary

31

What rock is found in an area of volcanoes

Igneous

32

What rock is most common at the surface near water areas

Sedimentary

33

What rock Contains fossils

Sedimentary

34

What rock is exposed to extreme pressure and heat

Metamorphic

35

What rock has layers of sand compacted together

Sedimentary

36

What rock has magma cooled and hardened

Igneous

37

What rock is made of minerals

Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic

38

Igneous rock

Forms when hot, liquid rock material (magma or lava) cools and hardens. This hot liquid rock material is found in regions of volcanic activity can make large mineral crystals

39

Sedimentary rock

Forms from cement sediment. sediment can be rock fragments of pieces of organic matter such as seashells in plant leaves. These sediments overtime will get buried, compressed, and cemented together. Most sedimentary rock forms on earth surface or near water were sediment accumulates. As a sediment accumulates many plants and animals are buried and become part of the rock. These remains of the organisms may become fossils.

40

Metamorphic rock

Forms when pre-existing rock is exposed to insane heat or pressure. This usually occurs during mountain building or deep within earth. Metamorphic rock may form when a small area of rock is in contact with hot magma.

41

Weathering breaks down into small pieces called

Sediments

42

Gravity and glacier

Water and wind

43

Organic plant and animal matter are found in the

Soil

44

The force behind all transporting agents of a erosion is

Gravity wind and rain

45

Sediment is moved by what in the dessert

Wind

46

Most Sediment is moved by

Gravity

47

What will break up the land

The deposition of sediment

48

Crust

The thinnest outermost layer, which completely surrounds the earth. It is the least dense layer. The crust is made of continental crust which makes up landmasses and ocean crust, which makes up the ocean floor

49

Mantle

The upper part of the mantle is a liquid like plastic that the crust floats on. Beneath This the mantle is a stiff solid.

50

Outer core

The outer core is above its melting point there for this there is a liquid. It’s composition liquid iron.

51

Inner core

The inner core is very dense and very hot. It is solid iron and nickel the elements that make up the core of the earth are believed to be the same as those that are found in some meteorites.

52

The structure of earths interior was discovered by studying what

Earthquake waves

53

The crust does what to the mantle

Floats on it

54

The largest section of earth

Mantle

55

Liquid iron layer

Outer core

56

The theory of plate tectonics

Describes earths lithosphere to be decided into plates

57

What can form if two plates collide

Mountains

58

Where are volcanoes and earthquakes common

The edges of plates

59

Where do volcanos form

Weak spots in the crust

60

What is the ring of fire

Refers to crustal activity along the edge of the Pacific Ocean

61

What does a benchmark indicate

The exact measurement of location

62

Luster

A gentle sheen or soft glow

63

Deposition

The action of deposing someone especially a monarch

64

Glacier

A slow moving mass for river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction snow on mountains or near the poles

65

Mineral

A solid in organic substance of natural occurrence

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Organic matter

Matter that has come from a recently living organism it is capable of decay or is the product of decay or is composed of organic compound

67

Rock

The solid mineral forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets to expose the surface or underlying the soil of oceans

68

When does weathering occur

When rocks are exposed to atmospheric gases, water, and the weather.

69

Weathering of bedrock is caused by

The action of expanding ice, temperature changes, animal and plant activity, and the action of chemicals such as water or carbon dioxide.

70

Weathering is most effected by

Climate. Air and water pollution have increased the rate of weathering in some locations.

71

Basalt

Gas bubbles dark on color. Makes up most of the ocean floor. Most common rock type in the earths crust

72

Conglomerate

Lots of compressed pebbles and sand spell water waves. Running the rack is a great clue that a river or beach once existed there. Often found in large expanses or beds

73

Gneiss

Ribbon like layers. It’s formed from other rocks that of been squeezed for a long time deep within earths crust. Can be seen on mountainsides where rocks formed below the surface has been pushed up by movements in the earths crust

74

Limestone

Fossils. Found near oceans and lakes

75

Marble

Crystals. Formed when limestone is pushed down into the earth and subjected to intense heat and pressure for a long period of time. Some is pure white, others have colorful swirls. Found in Mountainsides and quarries ( pits dug into the earth )and is often used in construction and sculpture

76

Obsidian

Glassy surface. Created from lava that cools so quickly that no crystal can form On it’s service. Found near volcanic lava flows and is often used to make arrowheads because it’s edges are very sharp.

77

Why are rocks frequently pulled under the surface of the earth

Movements of earths crust. They get hotter and hotter, then the rock changes.The pressure caused by tons of other rocks passing down from above can transform rocks too heat and pressure usually work together

78

What is metamorphism

The change when heat and pressure work together to change a rock is called metamorphism him which makes the resulting like a metamorphic rock

79

Why are forces bringing rocks closer to the surface

Forces are bringing rocks closer to the surface where (they weather and erode and compacted ) Then the forces on earth sync them back down. (Where they are heated, pressed and melted)

80

The elements that make up rocks

Are never created or destroyed they are constantly being recycled

81

What does a erosion move to a new location

Sediment

82

Where is windy erosion common

Dry climates in along beaches

83

Glacierssssss

Masses of ice that moves slowly down hill

84

Most sediment on earths surface is moved by

Gravity

85

Why are the plates constantly in motion

The plates are constantly in motion due to the convection currents in the mantle.The flow of these convection currents move the earths crust. Convection currents are caused by density differences.plate tectonics proves the mechanism that moves the continents

86

What does topography refer to

The shape of the land

87

What are hachure marks

Hachure marks show places of deposition where the elevation goes down