Earth sci- chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Earth sci- chapter 2 Deck (19):
1

atom

smallest particles of matter that rteain all the characteristics of element

2

atomic structure

nucleus-central region; contains protons (+) and neutrons
electrons- neg charge particles surrounding nucleus; located in discrete energy level called shells

3

ions

ion or molecule that has an electrical charge

4

isotopes

varities of same element that have different mass numbers; their nuclei contain the same number of protons but diff # of neutrons

5

octet rule

atom, gains, loses, or shares electrons until surrounded by 8 valence electrons; want to be like noble gas

6

silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

SiO4
silicate minerals comprised of it

7

silicates

igneous rock forming minerals
olivines
pyroxenes (augite)
amphiboles (hornblende)
micas
feldspars
quartz

8

non-silicates

carbonates- calcite, dolomite
halides- halite flourite sylvite
oxides- hematite magnetite corundum ice
sulfides- galena sphalerite pyrite
sulfate-gypsum barite anhydrite
native elements- gold, copper,silver, diamond, sulfur, graphite, platinum

9

quartz

SiO2

10

calcite

CaCO3

11

halite

NaCl
salty

12

mineral

naturally occuring, inorganic crystalline material with a unique chemical compmosition

13

cleavage

tendency to break along planes of weakness
produces flat shiny surface
described by # of planes and # of anlges

14

basal

one direction
thin sheets
muscovite

15

prismatic

2 directions
at 90 rectangle cross section- feldspar
not at 90 parallel cross sections- hornblende

16

cube

3 directions
at 90
halite

17

rhombohedron

3 directions not at 90
calcite

18

octahedron

4 directions
flourite

19

dodecahedorn

6 directions