ECG/Dysrhythmias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ECG/Dysrhythmias Deck (66)
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1

Left main

Left main (widow maker, CABG, cannot do angiography)

2

Left anterior descending artery

feeds anterior wall

3

Circumflex artery

lateral left wall of the heart

4

Right coronary artery

feeds inferior wall of the heart

5

posterior descending artery

posterior wall of the heart

6

cholesterol

less than 200
increases risk for CAD

7

LDL

Less than 160
main method of transport of cholesterol and triglycerides into the cell
Harmful effects in the deposition into cell walls

8

HDL

Transport cholesterol away from the tissues and cells of the artery wall to the liver for excretion
inverse relationship of elevated HDLs and CAD

9

BNP and what is it used for

Neurohormone that helps reduce BP and fluid volume
Secreted in the ventricles in response to increased preload and afterload in elevated ventricular pressure
BNP increases as the ventricular walls expand from increased pressure so it is helpful to monitor heart failure
obtained quickly used effectively in the ER
Can also indicate a PE, MI, Ventricular Hypertrophy
higher than 100= likely heart failure

10

C reactive protien and hemocystine

Produced in the liver in response to systemic inflammation
inflammation has a role in the development of artherosclerosis
predicts CVD risk
people with high hs-crp levels (3 or higher) are at an increased risk for CVD
Amino acid linked to the development of arteriosclerosis because it damages endothelial lining and promotes thrombus formation
An elevated blood level of hs is thought to increase r/f CAD, CVA, PVD, but not an independent predictor of CAD

11

Coagulation studies

injury to the vessel wall initiates the formation of thrombus
coagulation cascade is activated
complex factor interactions among phospholipid , calcium, clotting factors that convert prothrombin to thrombin
coagulation studies are routinely preformed before invasive procedures such as cardiac cath, electrophysiology, cardiac catheterization

12

nursing interventions after cardiac catheterization

fast 8-12 hrs before procedure
can not drive home
IV meds given but will be on hard table for 1-2 hrs
explain about palpitations
cough and deep breathing
Valvsa manuvar
observe site for bleeding and hematoma
check dorsal pedis and posterior tibalis q15 minutes 1hr, 30min 1 hr, q4 till discharge
assess bp, HR evaluate temp, color, capillary refill of effected extremity
dysrythmia after wards
bed rest 2-6 hours

13

CVP and what is it used for ?

central venous pressure
pressure measured in the right atrium or vena cava
equal at the end of diastole
normal in 2 to 6 mmHg
main reason for monitoring= hypovolemia

14

normal CVP

2 to 6 mmHg

15

Cardiac action potential (depolarization)

depolarization = electrical activation of cell caused by influx of sodium into the cell while the potassium exits the cells

16

Repolarization

where the return of cell resting state caused by the reentry of potassium unto the cell while the sodium when the cell exits

17

refactory period

phase in which cells are incapable of depolarizing

18

relative refactory period

phase which cells require stronger than normal action potential

19

vectors

each person has a different mean vector deviated
has an axis deviated to the right or the left

20

equation for regular heart beats

count small blocks, divde into 1500

21

equation for irregular heart beats

6 second strips

22

causes of sinus brady

lower BMR, needs vagal nerve stimulation, athletic training, hypothyroidism, sleep medications, calcium channel blockers, increased ICP, sinus node dysfunction, ca channel blockers, CAD

23

sinus brady can happen what type if MI?

inferior wall MI

24

trx of sinus brady

atropine 0.5mg of IV bolus q 3 to 5 minutes, max dosage of 3 grams

25

causes of sinus tachycardia

stress, blood loss, anemia, hypovolemia, heart failure, fever, catecholamines, aminophylline, atropine, caffeine nicotine, enchanced automacity of the SA node
autonomic dysfunction- spinal cprd injured dt postural orthostatic tachycardia
may cause syncope
ablation of SA node that causes abnormality if there is issues with quality of life

26

what happens to BP and CO with tachycardia

they can decrease which may cause syncope.. if chronic this may cause pulmonary edema

27

treatment of sinus tachycardia

Narrow QRS:
Adenosine
Beta blockers
Ca Channel blockers
Wide QRS:
Procainamide
amioderone
sortalol

28

if someone with sinus tachy is hemodynaimically unstable what is the trx of choice?

cardioversion

29

why do runners get a fib?

hypertrophy of the left ventricle

30

causes of A fib

structural cardiac defects
anemia
age
kidney disease
valvular heart disease
cardiomyopathy
hypertension
DM
Hyperthyroidism
obstructive sleep apnea