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Biology > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (47):
1

What is ecology?

Study of interactions between living things and organisms and their environment.

2

What is a biosphere?

Part of the planet containing living things

3

What is an ecosystem?

A group of clearly distinguished organisms that interact with their environment together.

4

What is a habitat?

The place where a plant or animal lives

5

What is a population?

All the members of the same species living in an area

6

What is a community?

All the different populations in an area

7

What are abiotic factors?

Non-living factors eg. Altitude

8

What are biotic factors?

Living factors eg. Food

9

What are climatic factors?

Refer to weather over a long period of time. Eg. Temperature

10

What are edaphic factors?

Relate to soil eg. pH

11

What are producers?

Organisms that carry out photosynthesis

12

What are consumers?

Organisms that take in food from another organism

13

Whats a (grazing) food chain?

Sequence of organisms in which each one is eaten by the next member in the chain

14

What is a food web?

Consists of two or more interlinked food chains

15

What is a pyramid of numbers?

Represents the number of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain

16

Name special features of aquatic environments.

Light
Currents
Wave action
Salt content
Oxygen content

17

What affect do currents have on aquatic environments?

Move non-attached plants

18

What affect does wave action have on aquatic environments?

Can cause physical damage to organisms

19

What affect does oxygen content have on aquatic environments?

Content lower in water than air so plants/animals need to be able to extract oxygen from water

20

What affect does salt content have on aquatic environments?

Organism is adapted to its environment whether fresh or salt water

21

What affect does light have on aquatic environments?

Water interferes with light penetration so plants are limited to upper layer of water or if attached to ground they can only grow in shallow water.

22

What is an ecological niche?

The ecological niche of an organism is the functional role it plays in the community

23

What is pollution?

Any harmful addition to the environment

24

What are pollutants?

Substances that cause pollution

25

What is conservation?

The wise management of our existing natural resources, in order to maintain a wide range of habitats and prevent the death and extinction of organisms.

26

What are some problems with waste disposal?

1) Availability of suitable landfill sites
2) Toxic fumes from incineration
3) Decaying waste produces methane which contributes to greenhouse effect.
4) Harmful substances may leak into ground water supply

27

How have we slowed down the depletion of the ozone layer?

Banned CFCs and fridges are recycled not dumped

28

What can a decrease in ozone cause?

Skin cancer, damage to crops, damage to animals, plankton reduction

29

What does the ozone layer do?

It's a gas that absorbs harmful UV light.

30

Name conservation practices in fisheries.

1) Use large-mesh nets to allow young to escape.

31

What is a waste management problem in agriculture?

Slurry begin dumped into lakes adds extra nutrients (eutrophication). This causes growth of algae. When they die bacteria breakdown them down. Bacteria takes oxygen from lake to do this therefore there's less oxygen in the water.

32

What is a solution to an agricultural waste problem?

Store slurry in leak-proof pits and spread on dry summer days

33

What is a waste problem in fisheries?

Waste from fish is highly alkaline

34

What is a solution to a waste problem in fisheries?

Neutralise the waste

35

What is a waste problem in forestry?

Waste from cutting down trees eg. Roots, branches.

36

What is a solution to a waste problem in forestry?

Branches- spread on ground and passed over by machine.
Stumps/roots- naturally rot
Tops of trees/large branches- turned to sawdust to make MDF

37

What role do microorganisms play in landfills?

Bacteria/fungi are in the soil that covers the waste. They breakdown the organic materials

38

What is the primary treatment of sewage?

Removing particles from waste by screening and sedimentation

39

What is the secondary treatment of sewage?

Bacteria and fungi breakdown organic waste.

40

What is the tertiary treatment of sewage?

Removes minerals from waste

41

What is reduce?

Use less, minimise waste

42

What is reuse?

Use again for a different purpose

43

What is a trophic level?

Feeding stage in a food chain

44

What is nutrient recycling?

The way in which elements are exchanged between the living and non-living components of an ecosystem

45

What is nitrogen fixation?

The conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia, ammonium or nitrate

46

What is nitrification?

The conversion of ammonia and ammonium compounds to nitrite and then to nitrate.

47

What is denitrification?

The conversion of nitrates to nitrogen gas.