Flashcards in Economics Deck (67)
For what is a GDP Deflator used?
Used to convert GDP to Real GDP
What is Real GDP?
Nominal GDP / GDP Deflator x 100
What is Gross National Product (GNP)?
Like GDP; Swaps foreign production. US Firms overseas are included- Foreign firms domestically are not included
What is the Consumer Price Index (CPI)? How is it applied?
Price of goods relative to an earlier period of time- which is the benchmark. Year 1 : 1.0
((CPI Current - CPI Last) / CPI Last) * 100
How is disposable income calculated?
Personal Income - Personal Taxes
How is Return to Scale calculated?
% Increase in output / % Increase in input
Greater than 1 : Increasing returns to scale
Less than 1 : Decreasing returns to scale
When is the economy in Recession?
When GDP growth is negative for two consecutive quarters.
What is a Depression?
A prolonged- severe recession with high unemployment rates
No requisite period of time for the economy to officially be in a depression
What are the stages of the Economic Cycle?
Expansion (higher again)
What are leading indicators?
Conditions that occur before a recession or before a recovery
Example: Stock Market or New Housing Starts
What are lagging indicators?
Conditions that occur after a recession or after a recovery
Examples: Prime Interest Rates- Unemployment
What are coincident indicators?
Conditions that occur during a recession or during a recovery
Example: Manufacturing output
Which people are included in the calculation of unemployment?
Only people looking for jobs
What is Cyclical Unemployment?
GDP doesn't grow fast enough to employ all people who are looking for work
Example: People are unemployed in 2010 because there aren't enough jobs available due to the economy
What is Frictional Unemployment?
People are changing jobs or entering the work force. This is a normal aspect of full employment.
Example: A recent college graduate is looking for a job
What is Structural Unemployment?
A worker's job skills do not match those necessary to get a job so they need education or training
Example: A construction worker wants to work in an office- so they quit their job and get computer training
How does inflation relate to unemployment?
High Unemployment : Low Inflation (Vice Versa)
What is the Discount Rate?
The rate a bank pays to borrow from the Fed.
What is the Prime Rate?
The rate a bank charges their best customers on short-term borrowings.
What is the Real Interest Rate?
Inflation-adjusted interest rate
What is the Nominal Rate?
Rate that uses current prices
What is the Risk-Free Rate?
Rate for a loan with 100% certainty of payback.
Usually results in a lower rate.
US Treasuries are an example.
What is included in the M1 money supply?
Currency- Coins- and Deposits
What is included in the M2 money supply?
Highly liquid assets other than currency- coins or deposits
What is Deficit Spending?
Increased spending levels without increased tax revenue.
Lower taxes without decrease in spending
Gamble that the multiplier effect will take over and boost economy
How can the Fed control the money supply?
By buying and selling the government's securities.
How does the Fed control economy-wide interest rates?
By adjusting the discount rate charged to banks
What is a Tariff?
A tax on imported goods
What is a quota?
A limit on the number of goods that can be imported