EcoSystems Flashcards Preview

8AP Science > EcoSystems > Flashcards

Flashcards in EcoSystems Deck (59):
1

Photosynthesis

The food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun.

2

Producers/autotrophs

Organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph

3

Chemical reaction for photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide + water -light and chlorophyll > glucose + oxygen

4

Chemical reaction for photosynthesis in chemical symbols

6CO2 + 6H2O - light and chlorophyll > C6H12O6 + 6O2

5

Process of photosynthesis

Chloroplasts contains Grana contains Chlorophyll absorbs Light energy used to make Glucose

6

Cellular respiration

The chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

7

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Tri Phosphate

8

Aerobic respiration

The chemical breakdown of food using oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in all body cells and releases energy.

9

Glycolysis

Process by which glucose is converted into a simple form, during which energy is released.

10

Cytosol

The fluid found inside cells

11

Krebs cycle

Part of the aerobic respiration process in which carbon dioxide and ATP (energy) are produced.

12

Electron transport chain reactions

Part of the aerobic process.

13

Mitochondria

Small rod-shaped organelles that supply energy to other parts of the cell. They are usually too small to be seen with light microscopes.

14

Anaerobic respiration

The chemical breakdown of food without oxygen. The reaction needs enzymes, occurs in cells and releases less energy than aerobic respiration.

15

Lactic acid

An end product of anaerobic respiration in animals; also known as lactate

16

Ethanol

An end product of anaerobic respiration in plants; a form of alcohol.

17

Obligate anaerobes

Organisms that can respire only anaerobically in the absence of oxygen.

18

Organism

Living thing

19

Species

A group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species.

20

Population

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time.

21

Community

More than one population living in the same area at a particular time.

22

Ecosystem

Communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment.

23

Ecology

The study of ecosystems

24

Producers/autotroph

Organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms

25

Decomposers

Organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials.

26

Consumers/heterotroph

Organisms that relies on other organisms for its food

27

Primary consumers/first-order consumer

The first consumer in a food chain (in the second trophic level).

28

Herbivores

Animal that eats only plants

29

Carnivores

An animals that eats other animals

30

Omnivores

Animal that eats plants and other animals

31

Decomposers/Detrivores

Animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter.

32

Ecological niche

The position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other.

33

Competition

The struggle among organisms for food, territory, and other factors.

34

Parasitism

An interaction in which one species (parasite) lives in or on another species from which it obtains food, shelter, and other requirements.

35

Mutualism

Relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit.

36

Commensalism

Relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected.

37

Interspecific competition

Competition between organisms of the same species.

38

Intraspecific competition

Competition between organisms of different species.

39

Predator-prey relationship

Relationship between organisms in which one species kills and eats another species.

40

Symbiotic relationships

Very close relationship between two organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners.

41

What is the difference between a decomposer and a detrivore?

A decomposer comes in the form of fungi or bacteria, whereas a detrivore can come in other forms like a worm, and they consume the waste of organisms

42

Chemosynthetic

Describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light.

43

Food chains

Diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another.

44

Food webs

Diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food.

45

Trophic level

A level within a food chain, food web, or food pyramid.

46

Secondary consumer/second-order consumer

The second consumer in a food chain (in the third trophic level).

47

Energy pyramid

A representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain.

48

Pyramid of numbers

A representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain.

49

Pyramid of biomass

A representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain.

50

Birth rate

The number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time.

51

Death rate

The number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time.

52

Immigration

The number of individuals moving into an area.

53

Emigration

The number of individuals leaving an area.

54

Exponential growth

A rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph.

55

Sigmoid

The shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau.

56

Equilibrium

A state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as a steady state or plateau phase.

57

Zero population growth

The point at which birth and death rates balance each other out.

58

Carrying capacity

The maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain.

59

Predation

An interaction between animal species where one animal kills and eats the other