Ecosystems Year 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ecosystems Year 8 Deck (54):
1

Autotrophs

An organism that produces their own food. Also known as producers

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Heterotrophs

An organism that consumes food from autotrophs . Also known as consumers

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Photosynthesis

The food making process in plants

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Fat

Organic substance solid at room temperature

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Metabolism

Chemical reaction occurring within an organism that enable that organism to use energy and grow and repair cells

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Cellular Respiration

the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.

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Aerobic respiration

The chemical breakdown of food using oxygen. This reaction requires enzymes to speed up the reaction

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Glycolysis

Process which glucose is converted into a simpler form

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Cytosol

The fluid inside cells

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Krebs Cycle

Process where ATP and carbon dioxide are produced

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Mitochondria

Organelle that supplies energy to all other parts of the cell

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Anaerobic respiration

Chemical breakdown of food without oxygen

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Lactic acid

Product of anaerobic respiration

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Ethanol

Product of anaerobic respiration in plants

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Obligate Anaerobes

Organisms than only respire using anaerobic respiration

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Organism

A living thing

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Species

A group of living organisms able to interbreed with each other

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Population

A group of organisms of the same species living in a particular area at a particular time

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Community

More than one population living in an area

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Ecosystem

Communities of organisms that interact with each other

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Ecology

The study of ecosystems

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Decomposers

Organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials

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Herbivores

Animals that eat only plants

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Primary consumers/first-order consumer

The first consumer in a food chain

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Carnivores

Animals that eat other animals

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Omnivores

Animals that eat plants and other animals

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Detrivores

An animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter

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Ecological niche

The position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

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Competition

Struggle among organisms for food territory and other factors

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Parasitism

An interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species (the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements

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Mutualism

Relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit

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Commensalism

Relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected

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Interspecific competition

Competition between organisms of the same species

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Intraspecific competition

Competition between organisms of different species

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Predator-prey relationship

Relationship between organisms in which one species (the predator) kills and eats another species (the prey)

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Symbiotic relations

Very close relationship between two organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners

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Chemosynthetic

Organisms that produce organic material using energy from chemical reaction

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Food chains

How energy is stored in one organism and passed to the other

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Food web

Several food chains put together

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Tropic level

Level within a food chain or web or pyramid

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First order

Organism in the second trophic level

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Second order

Organism in the third trophic level

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Energy pyramid

A representation of the level of food energy at each level of a food chain

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Pyramid of numbers

Representation of population at each level within a food chain

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Pyramid of biomass

Representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

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Birth rate

Number of organisms born during a particular time period

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Death rate

Number of organisms that die within a particular time period

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Immigration

Number of individuals moving into an area

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Emigration

The number of individuals leaving an area

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Exponential growth

Rapid increase of number and size

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Sigmoid

The shape of a graph showing an increasing population

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Equilibrium/Steady state/plateau phase

A state in which conditions are balanced no there is no growth or decline in number

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Zero population growth

The point at which birth and death cancel each other out

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Carrying capacity

The maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain