Flashcards in Elbow and forearm: Bones and muscles Deck (22):
What are the bones of the forearm?
What are the regions of the forearm?
Anterior compartment - flexor
Posterior compartment - Extensor
What structures are on the anterior surface of the humerus?
Trochlea, head and surgical neck, deltoid tuberosity and lateral/medial epicondyles on anterior and posterior
What structures are on the posterior surface of the humerus?
What are the main components of the radius?
Head of radius
Neck of radius
Tuberosity of radius
Ulnar notch of radius
What are the main components of the ulna?
Radial notch of ulna
Tuberosity of ulna
Head of ulna
What is a 'Colles' fracture of radius?
Distal radius (with clavicle) most commonly fractured upper limb bone (Colles) especially in elderly.
How can the ulna be dislocated and fractured?
Posterior dislocation: Prominence of olecranon posteriorly and distal humerus anteriorly
Fracture of coronoid process with posterior elbow dislocation. Coronoid fracture may occur without dislocation
Fascia of arm: Brachial fascia
Fascia of forearm: Antebrachial fascia
Act to tightly bind down muscles
Significant rise in pressure (e.g. - from bleeding or oedema) can lead to compression of contents - compartment syndrome
What is the cubital fossa?
It is the area between medial and lateral epicondyles, pronator teres and brachioradialis.
Its roof is the bicipital aponeurosis
Its floor is the brachialis muscle
- Medial cubital vein
- Cutaneous nerves
- Ulnar and radial arteries
- Medial and radial nerves
Muscles of the forearm (general)
Flexors more powerful than extensors
Skin overlying flexor muscles more sensitive than that over extensors
Supplied by 3 nerves - median, ulnar and radial
How is the anterior flexor compartment of the forearm organised?
It is organised into 3 layers
What muscles are located in the superficial later of the AFC of the forearm? Where do they originate?
The muscles all originate from the common flexor origin - medial epicondyle.
1. Pronator teres (PT)
2. Flexor Carpi radialis (FCR) - Flexes wrist on the radial side
3. Palmaris longus (PL)
4. Flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) - Flexes wrist on the ulnar side
What muscle is located in the intermediate layer of the AFC of the forearm? Where does it originate?
Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS)
It arrises from the common flexor origin, radius and ulna.
It flexes the had at the carco-metacarpal joints
It flexes fingers at first metacarpal joint
What muscles are located in the deep layer of the AFC of the forearm? Where do they originate?
They originate from the radius and ulna, with and without I/O membrane.
1. Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) - Flex at interphalangeal joints
2. Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP) - Insert into medial and distal phalanges
3. Pronator Quadratus (PQ) - From radius to ulna; pronator
What are the pronators and supinators?
Pronators: Pronator teres and pronator quadratus - together they pronate the forearm. If there is inflammation, they will pinch the median nerve
Supinator: Supination is the more powerful action; action also produced by biceps. Radius moves relative to ulna.
- Comes from medial and lateral cords (C5-T1)
- Supplies all but 1.5 muscles of anterior compartment of forearm: PT, FCR, PL, FDS, FPL, PQ, FDP (lateral two tendons)
- Passes via pronator teres to forearm and carpal tunnel to hand
- Anterior interosseous nerve
- Compression at the elbow: Functional deficit, hand of benediction
- Comes from medial cord (C8, T1)
- Supplies 1.5 muscles in anterior compartment: FCU and FDP (medial two tendons)
-Susceptible to compression and/or stretch across back of medial epicondyle - functional deficits, claw hand
How is the posterior extensor compartment of the forearm organised?
It is organised into two layers:
What muscles are located in the superficial layer of the PEC of the forearm? Where do they originate?
Most arise from the common flexor origin - lateral epicondyle
2. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)
3. Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)
4. Extensor digitorum communis (EDC)
5. Extensor digiti minimi (EDM)
6. Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)
What muscles are located in the deep layer of the PEC of the forearm? Where do they originate?
Most arise from the ulna with/without radius and interosseous membrane.
2. Abductor pollicis longus (APL)
3. Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)
4. Extensor pollicis longus (EPB)
5. Extensor indicis (EI)