Flashcards in Elizabethan England - Chapter 1 (queen, government and religion) Deck (62):
List the social hierarchy of Elizabethan England (starting from important members of society to least important)
4. Tenant farmers
5. Landless or labouring poor
List the social hierachy OF TOWNS in Elizabethan England (starting from most to least important)
2. Professionals (e.g. lawyers, teachers, doctors)
3. Business owners
4. Skilled craftsmen
5. Unskilled workers and the unemployed
Who were yeomen?
Men who owned a small amount of land or an estate
Who were tenant farmers?
Farmers who rented land
What factor was the social hierarchy of Elizabethan England determined by?
It was determined by how much land you had and whether you owned or rented it
What factor was the hierarchy IN TOWNS based on?
wealth and occupation
in homes, the .... were the head of the household and the ..... and ...... were expected to be obedient to him
2. women and children
What were the 3 key features and 2 roles of a court (in an elizabethan government)
1. court was a body of people who lived near the monarch
2. mostly made up of members of the nobility
3. Attending court requires the monarchs permission
1. to entertain and advise the monarch
2. A public display of wealth and power
Who were the privy council and give 2 of their roles
The privy council were a group made up of leading courtiers and advisers (like William Cecil)
1. To debate current issues and advise the monarch on government policy
2. Monitored JP's
3. Made sure the monarchs final decisions were carried out
Give 2 key fetaures of parliament and 3 of their roles?
1. Parliament was made up of HofL and HofC
2. Could only be dismissed and called by the monarch
1. To grant extroardinary taxation (occasional, additional taxation to pay for unexpected expenses)
2. Passed laws
3. Offered advice to monarch
Who were lord lieutenants and give 2 of their roles?
They were members of the nobility, who were often on also on the privy council
1. In charge of raising and training the local military force
2. helped maintain the monarchs power and Englands defences
Who were JP's and give 2 of their roles?
JP's were large landowners who kept law and order in their local areas
1. To ensure all social and economic policies were carried out
2. Heard county cases every 3 months for serious crimes
What did Elizabeth have the right to do? (4 things)
1. Declare war and make peace
2. Call and dismiss parliament/laws
3. Grant titles, land, money and jobs
What is patronage?
To provide someone with an important job/position
Who was Elizabeths most important privy councillor?
Sir William Cecil
What was the royal prerogative?
Areas/things that only the monarch had the right to decide upon (parliament couldnt disagree)
What topics did the queen NOT want parliament to discuss?
Foreign policy, marriage and the succession
Why was legitimacy a problem for Elizabeth?
People didnt think Elizabeth as legitimate as Henry claimed her not to be and barred her from succession to the throne. (but he later reversed this decision)
What were some advantages of Elizabeth being married and having children?
1. Her potential husband could fulfil the role of military leader in war
2. Having children would ensure succession to the throne
What were some disadvantages of Elizabeth being married?
1. She would be seen as less important
2. The only man of suitable rank would be a foreign prince but he may put Englands needs second to his own country
Why did England need a strong monarch after Mary?
1. England had allied with Spain in a war against France and lost. Morale was low
2. Many people were in poverty and diseases were common
3. Marys marriage to Philip was so unpopular that it led to a rebellion
4. Mary burned almost 300 people for their religious beliefs
Describe some of Elizabeths strengths
1. Elizabeth was highly intelligent
2. She had an excellent grasp of politics
3. She was confident and charismatic
Describe some of Elizabeths weaknesses
1. She had a temper
2. She often took a long time to make up her mind
How could monarchs raise money?
W-taxes from trade
- special addition taxes, known as subsidies
- Forces loans (they didnt need to be repaid)
Why didnt the country have a lot of money when Elizabeth came into power?
England had fought costly wars before she became queen
Why was France a threat to England?
- France was wealthier and had a larger population
- Scotland and France were allies and this strengthened the threat of Mary, Queen of Scots
Why did Elizabeth want to regain Calais?
Calais was an important trading post
Why was Elizabeth concerned that France and Spain were no longer at war?
As they were both Catholic countries, they could unite against England
What was the reformation and who started it?
A movement that challenged the teachings and power of the Roman Catholic church
Henry VIII started the reformation
Give a few differences between the wants of the Catholics and the wants of the Protestants?
- there shouldnt be a pope
- not necessary to have cardinals, archbishops or bishops
- sin can only be forgiven by God
- churches should be plain and simple
For catholics, its the opposite
What is mass?
A catholic service at which catholics are given bread and wine, which turn into the body and blood of christ
Why was changing the countrys religion a problem for Elizabeth?
- shed need the involvement of parliament, and bishops in parliament would probably not agree with working in a protestant environment
Religious leaders, such as bishops or priests
The further away an area was from London, the more likely that it would be .......
An area looked after by a bishop
Who were puritans?
When did elizabeth establish the 'religious settlement'?
describe the three parts of the religious settlement
1. Act of Supremacy - made Elizabeth supreme governor of the Church of England - all clergy and royal officials had to swear an oath of allegiance to her
2. Act of uniformity - Established the eppearance of churches and the form of services they held e.g. priests were to wear special clothing and the clergy had to use the wording of the Prayer Book during worship as it can be interpreted differently by Catholics and Protestants
3. Royal injuctions - set of instructions that reinforced the acts of Supremacy and Act of uniformity
What did the act of uniformity say about missing church on a Sunday and other holy days?
You'd be fined 1 shilling
Give 3 examples of the instructions in the 'royal injuctions'
1. Anyone who refused to attend church was to be reported to the privy council
2. Each parish was to have a copy of the bible in English
3. The clergy were to wear special vestments
How did Elizabeth try to appeal to the Catholics in the religious settlement?
- she allowed images in churches
- the clergy could wear special clothing
How did people react to the religious settlement?
- many priests took the oath of supremacy
- not many bishops took the oath of supremacy
- the majority of ordinary people accepted the RS
- Some protestants in london didnt accept it and would destroy church ornaments and statues of saints
Who were recusants?
Catholics who were unwilling to atend church services laid down by the Elizabethan religious settlement
What was the role of the church of England?
1. It ran church courts
2. It legitimised power to the Monarch
3. It enforced the religious settlements
How did Elizabeth enforce the RS?
- There were inspections of churches and clergy to ensure that everyone took the oath of supremacy and followed the terms of the RS
Which group of people woudnt comply with the RS?
What did the puritans not agree with in the RS?
1. They didnt agree with the fact that crucifixes should be shown in churches
2. They didnt agree with the idea that priests should wear special clothing
The pope issued an order for catholics not to attend....
church of England services
The system of Church government ruled by the pope
People with controversial opinions and beliefs
Why did Elizabeth want to help French protestants in the religious war in 1562
She was hoping to get back calais in return
Why did King Philip ban the important of cloth from England to the Netherlands?
He thought english merchants would encourage the spread of protestantism
What is a trade embargo?
When governments ban trade with another country
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
a political and religious body set up by Spain in 1478, to keep Spanish territories true to the Catholic faith
Give a few key features of the Dutch Revolt
1. The dutch were unhappy with spains interference with the country
2. Philip sent the duke of Alba with an army 10,000 men to put down the revolt
3. many dutch protestants were condemned to death
Why was Elizabeth concerned about Albas presence in the Netherlands?
1. They were within easy striking distance of England
2. She wanted to avoid war, and initially openly condemned the dutch rebels from entering the English border but they still came to England anyway
Elizabeth was afraid that Spain would invade England and get rid of ....
Give three factors that strengthened the Catholic threat to England
1. Mary, Queen of Scots
2. The Revolt of the Northern Earls, 1569
3. The dutch revolt
Why was Mary, Queen of Scots a threat to Elizabeth?
1. She was a Catholic
2. She had a stronger claim to the throne
What was the treaty of Edinburgh (1560)?
A treaty that stated Mary would give up her claim to the throne
Elizabeth had 4 options, in deciding what to do with Mary when Mary came to England (1568)
1. Help Mary to regain her throne
2. Hand Mary over to the Scottish Lords
3. Allow Mary to go abroad
4. Keep Mary in England