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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (46):
1

Urogenital structures arising from intermediate mesoderm (5)

-Kidney (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephric ducts/tubules)
-Ureter
-Adrenal cortex
-Gonads
-Reproductive ducts (Mesonephric/Wolffian + Paramesonephric/Mullerian)

2

Primoridal germ cells begin their migration from _ and end up in _

-Yolk sac
-Genital ridges (developing gonads)

3

What initiates primordial germ cell migration?

The presence of two sex chromosomes

4

Wolffian ducts develop into? (4)

SEED
Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, Ductus deferens

5

Mullerian ducts develop into? (4)

Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Upper vagina

6

Genital tubercle develops into (male and female)

Male = Glans of penis
Female = Glans of clitoris

7

Urethral folds develop into (male and female)

Male = corpora cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, shaft of penis
Female = bulb of vesibule, labia minora

8

Genital swelling develops into (male and female)

Male = scrotum
Female = labia majora

9

Anti-Mullerian Hormone is part of what family?

TGF-beta superfamily of peptide growth factors

10

5-alpha reductase type 1 locations

Liver and Skin

11

5-alpha reductase type 1 functions

male body hair patterns

12

5-alpha reductase type 2 locations

skin of the genitals and skin on the scalp

13

5-alpha reductase type 2 functions

-masculinization of the external genitalia in utero
-male pattern baldness

14

Kleinfelter Syndrome genotype

XXY

15

male + hypogonadism + gynecomastia + above average height + infertile =

Kleinfelter Syndrome

16

Turner Syndrome genotype

XO

17

female + short stature + streak gonad/infertile + no puberty =

Turner Syndrome

18

Kleinfelter levels of LH and FSH (elevated or decreased)

Elevated LH, Elevated FSH due to lack of T feedback (low T due to hypogonadism)

19

SF1 function?

-Transcription factor for DAX1
-Stimulate AMH/MIS production in Sertoli cells
-Stimulate T production within Leydig cells

20

One copy of DAX1 function?

-Testes differentiation

21

SRY function?

Sertoli cell and Leydig cell differentiation

22

Arteries of the developing gut (3)

Foregut - Celiac trunk
Midgut - Superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut - Inferior mesenteric artery

23

Developing heart: Bulbus cordis ->

Smooth RV + LV

24

Developing heart: Truncus arteriosus ->

ascending aorta + pulmonary trunk

25

Developing heart: Primitive Ventricles ->

Trabeculated RV + LV

26

Developing heart: Primitive Atria ->

R + L auricles

27

Developing heart: Sinus venosus ->

Coronary sinus + RA

28

Developing heart: Ductus arteriosus ->

Ligamentum arteriosum

29

Function of ductus arteriosus?

Connects the fetal pulmonary artery and fetal aorta

30

Function of the foramen ovale?

Connects the RA to the LA (R->L shunt)

31

Function of the ductus venosus?

Connects the umbilical vein (carrying oxygenated blood) to the IVC

32

Developing heart: Umbilical vein + Ductus venosus ->

Ligementum teres

33

Developing heart: Umbilical arteries ->

Medial umbilical ligaments

34

Ostium primium is made by: (2)

Septum primium growing downwards towards the AV cushions

35

Ostium secundum is formed when?

Superior septum primium begins to degenerate

36

Developing heart: Common cardinal veins ->

Superior vena cava

37

Interventricular foramen is made via?

muscular interventricular septum grows upwards and does not quite reach the AV cushions therefore leaving a space.

38

Aorticopulmonary septum is derived from?

neural crest cells

39

Omphalocele

Failure of herniated midgut to return to the abdominal cavity during the 5th week of development. Herniated intestines are covered in peritoneal membrane and is midline to the umbilicus.

40

Gastroschisis

Full thickness abdominal wall defect allowing small or large bowel to escape. Will not be covered by peritoneal membrane. Protrudes lateral to the umbilicus.

41

Midgut volvulus presents as?

Bilious emesis, abdominal pain and distension, rectal bleeding

42

Fixed split S2 is found in which heart defect and which beat comes first (A or P)?

ASD
Pulmonic closes first

43

Trisomy 21 heart defect

Persistent AV canal, VSD, ASD

44

Umbilical vein oxygen content - high, moderate, low?

High O2 content

45

Umbilical artery oxygen content - high, moderate, low?

Moderate O2 content

46

DiGeorge Syndrome is the underdevelopment of what 2 things?

3rd and 4th branchial pouches