Flashcards in Embryology Deck (46):
Urogenital structures arising from intermediate mesoderm (5)
-Kidney (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephric ducts/tubules)
-Reproductive ducts (Mesonephric/Wolffian + Paramesonephric/Mullerian)
Primoridal germ cells begin their migration from _ and end up in _
-Genital ridges (developing gonads)
What initiates primordial germ cell migration?
The presence of two sex chromosomes
Wolffian ducts develop into? (4)
Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, Ductus deferens
Mullerian ducts develop into? (4)
Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Upper vagina
Genital tubercle develops into (male and female)
Male = Glans of penis
Female = Glans of clitoris
Urethral folds develop into (male and female)
Male = corpora cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, shaft of penis
Female = bulb of vesibule, labia minora
Genital swelling develops into (male and female)
Male = scrotum
Female = labia majora
Anti-Mullerian Hormone is part of what family?
TGF-beta superfamily of peptide growth factors
5-alpha reductase type 1 locations
Liver and Skin
5-alpha reductase type 1 functions
male body hair patterns
5-alpha reductase type 2 locations
skin of the genitals and skin on the scalp
5-alpha reductase type 2 functions
-masculinization of the external genitalia in utero
-male pattern baldness
Kleinfelter Syndrome genotype
male + hypogonadism + gynecomastia + above average height + infertile =
Turner Syndrome genotype
female + short stature + streak gonad/infertile + no puberty =
Kleinfelter levels of LH and FSH (elevated or decreased)
Elevated LH, Elevated FSH due to lack of T feedback (low T due to hypogonadism)
-Transcription factor for DAX1
-Stimulate AMH/MIS production in Sertoli cells
-Stimulate T production within Leydig cells
One copy of DAX1 function?
Sertoli cell and Leydig cell differentiation
Arteries of the developing gut (3)
Foregut - Celiac trunk
Midgut - Superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut - Inferior mesenteric artery
Developing heart: Bulbus cordis ->
Smooth RV + LV
Developing heart: Truncus arteriosus ->
ascending aorta + pulmonary trunk
Developing heart: Primitive Ventricles ->
Trabeculated RV + LV
Developing heart: Primitive Atria ->
R + L auricles
Developing heart: Sinus venosus ->
Coronary sinus + RA
Developing heart: Ductus arteriosus ->
Function of ductus arteriosus?
Connects the fetal pulmonary artery and fetal aorta
Function of the foramen ovale?
Connects the RA to the LA (R->L shunt)
Function of the ductus venosus?
Connects the umbilical vein (carrying oxygenated blood) to the IVC
Developing heart: Umbilical vein + Ductus venosus ->
Developing heart: Umbilical arteries ->
Medial umbilical ligaments
Ostium primium is made by: (2)
Septum primium growing downwards towards the AV cushions
Ostium secundum is formed when?
Superior septum primium begins to degenerate
Developing heart: Common cardinal veins ->
Superior vena cava
Interventricular foramen is made via?
muscular interventricular septum grows upwards and does not quite reach the AV cushions therefore leaving a space.
Aorticopulmonary septum is derived from?
neural crest cells
Failure of herniated midgut to return to the abdominal cavity during the 5th week of development. Herniated intestines are covered in peritoneal membrane and is midline to the umbilicus.
Full thickness abdominal wall defect allowing small or large bowel to escape. Will not be covered by peritoneal membrane. Protrudes lateral to the umbilicus.
Midgut volvulus presents as?
Bilious emesis, abdominal pain and distension, rectal bleeding
Fixed split S2 is found in which heart defect and which beat comes first (A or P)?
Pulmonic closes first
Trisomy 21 heart defect
Persistent AV canal, VSD, ASD
Umbilical vein oxygen content - high, moderate, low?
High O2 content
Umbilical artery oxygen content - high, moderate, low?
Moderate O2 content