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Biology and Infectious Disease Control > Emerging Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Emerging Diseases Deck (24):
1

What were the emerging diseases mentioned in the lectures?

Human papilloma virus
Tuberculosis
Avian flu

2

Why is human papilloma virus an emerging disease?

large portion of people exposed
many people have it

3

How is human papilloma virus contracted?

skin abrasions
mucosa
cervical epithelium

4

How does human papilloma virus access cells?

capsid proteins L1 and L2

5

Where does human papilloma virus replicate?

keratinocytes

6

What can human papilloma virus cause?

papillomas
recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
giant condyloma of Buschke-Lowenstein
cancer

7

Can human papilloma virus cause cancer?

Yes, but only a few strains out of over a 100 total.

8

What determines whether human papilloma can cause cancer?

the level of genome integration of viral into human

9

Why is tuberculosis an emerging disease?

inadequate healthcare
immunosuppressed (vulnerable) - i.e. HIV
drug resistant strains

10

How is tuberculosis spread?

water droplets

11

What does tuberculosis infect first?

air mucosa

12

Rarer types of tuberculosis (2)

CNS tuberculosis
Skeletal tuberculosis (10-20%) - Pott's disease

13

How does the cell-mediated response cause damage when combating tuberculosis infection?

Forms granulomas around bacteria -> necrotic & caseous
- damages respiratory tissue

14

What does skeletal tuberculosis cause?

Compressed fractures
Extensive necrosis
[thoracic vertebrae]

15

What does CNS tuberculosis cause?

Granulomas in brain
-> seizures
-> other problems...

16

Why is avian flu an emerging disease?

Antigenic drift - no immunity/vaccine
Global world/economy
Close proximity of pigs and birds -> deadly strain?

17

How are avian flu strains named?

Types of hemagglutin and neuraminidase antigens on surface.

18

What is hemagglutin?

Antigen found on the surface of avian flu viruses - releases the virus from cells

19

What is neuraminidase?

Antigen found on the surface of avian flu viruses - allows virus to attach to host cells

20

What does avian flu cause in the lungs of infected humans?

Haemorrhage, necrosis and alveolar damage

21

What does avian flu cause in the liver of infected humans?

Lobular necrosis, tubular necrosis

22

What does avian flu cause in the kidneys of infected humans?

Acute tubular necrosis

23

What does avian flu cause in the brain of infected humans?

Edema (abnormal accumulation of fluid) and demyelination.

24

How can avian flu be contracted?

Virus transferred into eyes or respiratory pathways in sufficient quantity.