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Flashcards in Employment Contracts Deck (30)
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Statute for written particulars

s1, necessary requirement, includes things such as pension, place of work, names of employers/employees, start date

this is not a contract but provides evidence of one


what is an express term

terms agreed between parties
These prioritise over implied terms but they are heavily subscribed by them


Categories of implied terms

o Terms implied ‘in fact’ (not done many cards on this)
o Terms implied by law (no notes on this)
o Terms implied by statute

these are for employees only


Example of express and implied term together

Flexibility clause give the employer the right to move a employee, an implied term by law (minimum notice period s86) puts limitations on this


what are terms implied by fact

they fill gaps in the contract


Case, test and facts related to terms implied by fact....

Custom and practice test, Mears v Safecare Security

- contract said nothing about sick pay. Colleagues said they never got sick pay. C said because it was silent on that matter they should provide it. Court needs to fill this 'gap' in the contract. Held because they have never given sick pay they didn't need to give it to C


Terms implied by statute examples

- Minimum notice periods – S86 ERA
o Example: if a contract says that an employee must give notice of a month, the employee can ignore it due to this provision
- Limits on working time – Reg 4(1) Working Time Regulations 1998


What is an incorporated term

terms incorporated by collective agreements, staff handbooks(other documents)

These are good because they allow policies to be kept up to date because contracts cant be changed unilaterally


case related to staff hand books + ruling

Bateman v Asda - handbook reserved the right to reflect changes in the business, including pay. A few people lost a minute about of money in a payment merger and argued breach of contract. Held no, because of the handbook right


What are the implied duties on an employee

- Duty of fidelity
- Duty to obey reasonable and lawful orders
- Duty to be adaptable
- Duty of care to exercise reasonable care and skill in carrying out work
- Duty of mutual trust and confidence


What are the duties on an employer

- Duty to pay wages (don’t do this on this course)
- Health and Safety
- Duty to give reasonable notice
- Duty to ensure health and safety
- Duty to deal promptly with grievances
- Duty of mutual trust and confidence – (most important)


what is duty of fidelity

if an employee does something without the employers permission they will be in breach of the fidelity duty.


What are the aspects of duty of fidelity

Not to compete
Not to solicit customers
Not to entice away employees
Not to misuse the property of the employer
Duty to account
Not to disrupt the business of the employer:


Case for 'Not to disrupt the business of the employer' (employee duty)

Ticehurst v BT -
- FACTS: an industrial dispute arose with the employees. The union advised the employees to say no first and deal with the consequences later. Mrs Tiehurst was dismissed for this, BT argued they were entitled to do this because she was working in a way that was disruptive to the business.
- HELD: CA agreed and held this behaviour was a breach of her duty of fidelity. The facts she was a manager and others may follow her behaviour contributed to this.


Case for not to compete (employee duty)

- Hivac Ltd v Park Royal Scientific Instruments Ltd [1946]
- FACTS: the employees were in breach of their duty of fidelity because they were using their skills in private for the benefit of a competing company.


Case for not to solicit customers (employee duty)

- Wessex Dairies Ltd v Smith [1935]
- FACTS: Smith was a milkman. On his last day he delivered milk accompanied by a note saying how he was available to still deliver milk bu from a different company. This was soliciting customers as he was still employed by Wessex Dairies because it was his last day.


Case for not to entire away employees (employee duty)

- Marshal v Industrial Systems and Control Ltd [1992] IRLR 294 EAT
- FACTS: Marshal and another set up a competing business with their current employer. They drew up a business plan and intended to solicit employer’s best customers. They approached a senior employee of the old company and this was held to be enticing employees.


case for not to misuse the property of the employer (employee duty)

- Sinclair v Neighbour [1967] 2 QB 279 CA
- FACTS: this has been described as a harsh case. The employee needed to buy something urgently. He borrowed money from the till and placed an IOU, he later replaced the money. He was dismissed.
- HELD: he had not been unfairly dismissed as he had misused the property. It has been said this is a harsh decision.


case for duty to account (employee)

- Boston v Deep Sea Fishing and Ice Ltd v Ansell [1888]
- FACTS: director of a company put out a contract for ships for different contracts. He had to account for profits for both of his employees.


Act relating to employers health and safety duty

HSWA 1974


Case relating to Health and safety duty

- Walker v Northumberland CC [1995]
- FACTS: C suffered a mental breakdown due to an excess of work. When he returned to work he asked for help, wasn’t given it and had another break down. He was dismissed due to ill health.
- HELD: D had breached his duty to take reasonable steps to protect C’s mental health which would have made a safe environment.


Case relating to grievance duty

W A Goold (Pearmak) Ltd v McConnell [1995]
- FACTS: case involved jewelers who sold on commission. They changed location which affected how much they could sell, they raised a grievance and didn’t raise a substantive response. The managing director said he would deal with it at a later date.
- HELD: they had been constructively dismissed because they had breached their duty to deal with grievances


Is there a duty to provide work?

- If they depend on publicity for their living e.g. those in theatre.
- They have a specialist skill


Case relating to employers duty to provide work

- William Hill Ltd v Tucker [1998]
- FACTS: they were bound into a 3-month contract with WH. WH put Tucker on garden leave, they did not have a clause which expressly allowed them to do this. Tucker successful argued that because he had specialist skills he needed to use them on a regular basis or he would lose his marketability.
- HELD: WH were in breach of contract and Tucker could leave without serving notice


Explain the duty of mutual trust and confidence

extends to employer and employee (rarely relied upon by employer, mainly employee in constructive dismissal)
This is a fundamental breach


Key case for duty of mutual trust and confidence and quote

- Malik v BCCI [1997]:
- An employer will not, ‘without reasonable and proper cause, conduct itself in a manner calculated or likely to destroy or seriously damage the relationship of confidence and trust between employer and employee’


Morrow v Safeway stores

a breach of mutual trust and confidence is ALWAYA fundamental (cannot be a minor breach)
This breach can occur even by mistake

(D accidentaly shouted at her)


United Bank v Akhtar

- Mr Akhtar claimed constructive dismissal when he was told to move from Leeds to Birmingham to work in 6 days.
- Despite the fact that there was a mobility clause (an express term) in his contract, the employment appeal tribunal (EAT) found it unreasonable (Malik) for the employer to expect the employee to move within the six-day time frame. In other words, it said that the implied term of trust and respect overrode the express term of the contract.


White v Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd

- D asked to move departments as there was better pay, it was too physical, and he asks to be moved back. There’s no room so he is moved somewhere which requires a 50% pay cut. He resigns and says there has been a breach of mutuality and trust.
- This move was rational and not unreasonable on the part of the employers, thus meaning there was no breach of contract because an employee loses money.


• Cantor Fitzgerald International v Horkulak

- C claimed constructive dismissal following an episode of abuse about a presentation and was not paid his bonus.
- Held there had been a breach of mutual trust and confidence. The boss had not been reasonable or professional in his comments about the presentation and not paying the bonus he was entitled to.