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Flashcards in End of year biology y10 revision Deck (83)
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1
Q

We cannot control the level of water, ion or urea loss by the lungs or skin
True / False?

A

True

2
Q

We cannot control the level of water, ion or urea loss by the lungs or skin. Explain why ?

A

We cannot control the level of water, ion or urea loss by the lungs or skin. For example, in a hot climate, your body sweats to help keep you cool. In the same way, when we breathe out we lose water vapour, and we cannot alter the amount we lose.

3
Q

What part of the body controls osmoregulation?

A

Kidney

4
Q

Body temperature is monitored and controlled by the ———- in the —————–

A

Body temperature is monitored and controlled by the thermoregulatory centre in the hypothalamus

5
Q

Describe the structure and functioning of a simple reflex arc illustrated by the withdrawal of a finger from a hot object

A
  1. The pin (the stimulus) is detected by a (pain/pressure/touch) receptor in the skin on the person’s foot
  2. A sensory neurone sends electrical impulses to the spinal cord (the coordinator)
  3. An electrical impulse is passed to a relay neurone in the spinal cord (part of the CNS)
  4. A relay neurone synapses with a motor neurone
  5. A motor neurone carries an impulse to a muscle in the leg (the effector)
  6. When stimulated by the motor neurone, the muscle will contract and pull the foot up and away from the sharp object (the response)
  7. This all occurs within a fraction of a second
6
Q

Name two enzymes produced by cells in the pancreas

A

amylase

lipase;

7
Q

answer the attached question

A
  1. dendrites connect with other neurones
  2. axon carries/allows impulse /
  3. myelin sheath for protection / insulation / faster impulse /
  4. connected to muscle fibres / allows impulse to reach muscle fibres / enables muscle fibres to contract / synapses with muscle fibres;
8
Q

label the diagram and mentioned the names of different neurones

A
9
Q

Suggest the function of each of the sections of the sperm cell.

head

middle piece

tail

A

head : break through egg membrane and contains chromosomes (DNA)

middle piece : respiration

tail : swim / move

10
Q

explain what happens

A

male gamete/sperm/nucleus AND female gamete/egg/nucleus / haploid / 23 chromosomes;

  1. fuse / join / combine / eq;
  2. zygote / diploid / 46 chromosomes;
  3. mitosis / cell division;
  4. three times / 2, 4 then 8 / three divisions;
11
Q

answer the question

A

b

12
Q

answer the question

A

A

13
Q

answer the question

A

C

14
Q

answer the question

A
15
Q

How does the temperature affect the enzymes?

A

Enzymes are proteins and have a specific shape, determined by the amino acids that make the enzyme and held in place by bonds

This is extremely important around the active site as the specific shape is what ensures the substrate will fit into the active site and enable the reaction to proceed

Enzymes work fastest at their ‘optimum temperature’

In the human body, the optimum temperature is 37⁰C

Heating to high temperatures (beyond the optimum) will break the bonds that hold the enzyme together and it will lose its shape

This is known as denaturation

Substrates cannot fit into denatured enzymes as the shape of their active site has been lost

Denaturation is irreversible - once enzymes are denatured they cannot regain their proper shape and activity will stop

16
Q

Ribosomes are found in animal cells and in plant cells

name the process that occures at the ribosomes

A

Protein Synthesis

17
Q

answer the question

A

A it is digested into amino acids

18
Q

answer the question

A
19
Q

answer the question

A

a. moves up / increases
b. use water bath / use Bunsen

  • use scale / measurements (on tube)/ ruler / (use pen to) mark tube
  • use clock / timer / stopwatch
20
Q

answer the question

  1. what is the name of the large insolubale molecule?
  2. why the student opens the tap after obtaining one set of results?
  3. what is the function of the soda lime?
  4. suggest why the rate of oxygen obsorption is greater at 22C than at 12C
A
  1. starch
  2. reset (the coloured water) / eq (1)  repeat readings / reliable results / more results (1)  allow oxygen in / (aerobic) respiration / prevent anaerobic respiration (1)
  3. absorbs carbon dioxide
  4.  (more) respiration (1)  enzymes (1)  (more)(kinetic) energy / collisions / enzyme substrate complexes / move faster / eq (1)
21
Q

answer the question

A

a. fertilisation
b. hromosomes
c. (aerobic) respiration / energy / ATP (1)  movement / swimming (of sperm / of tail) (

22
Q

answer the questions

A

b

a

c

auxin transported in xylem / phloem / auxin not transported in blood / plasma (1)  auxin produced in tips / eq auxin not from endocrine / glands / organs (1)  auxin has different effect on roots and shoots / eq (1)

23
Q

explain the effect of carbon monoxide on humans

A

binds with haemoglobin / forms carboxyhaemoglobin (1)  (less) oxygen (1)  (less) respiration (1)  fatal / death / less growth / suffocation (1)

24
Q

explain the change of rate of breathing during excercise

A

 increases (1)  oxygen for respiration / aerobic respiration (1)  muscle (1)  remove carbon dioxide (1)

25
Q

explain the change of breathing rate during excercise

explain why the breathing rate remains high after finishing the excercise?

A

 increases (1)  oxygen for respiration / aerobic respiration (1)  muscle (1)  remove carbon dioxide (1)

 (remove) lactic acid (1)  anaerobic respiration (1)  oxygen debt / EPOC / excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (1)

26
Q

answer the question

A

(position) palisade at top / (just) beneath upper epidermis OR spongy in middle/near(er) lower surface (1)

 (structure) palisade closely packed / long / rectangular / elongated / column / packed together / dense / fixed together / no air spaces / no gaps OR spongy have air spaces / gaps / rounded (1)

 (chloroplasts) palisade have more/many chloroplasts / chlorophyll OR spongy have fewer chloroplasts / less chlorophyll (1)

 (palisade cells) absorb (sun)light (1)

 spongy allow diffusion / gas exchange / gases to move / movement of water vapour / movement of carbon dioxide / movement of oxygen / transpiration (1)

27
Q

A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in hot desert regions of America. (i) In kangaroo rats, the tissue surrounding the collecting duct contains a high concentration of ions. Explain how this feature enables kangaroo rats to survive in the desert.

A

water reabsorbed / water into blood (1)  osmosis (1)  concentrated urine / les

28
Q

answer the question

A
29
Q

answer the question

A
30
Q

Explain three other ways that alveoli are adapted to maximise gas exchange.

A

thin (walls) / one cell thick / close to capillaries and short diffusion distance / not far to diffuse (1)

 wet / water / moist and gases dissolve / in solution (1)

 capillaries / blood supply / blood flow and concentration/diffusion gradient (1)

31
Q

answer the questions

A
32
Q

answer the questions

A
33
Q

give example of diffusion

A
34
Q

The mucus is made by special mucus-producing cells called —————

A

The mucus is made by special mucus-producing cells called goblet cells

35
Q

what is the function of cilia and mucus?

A

The mucus is produced by goblet cells and traps bacteria, dust, particles

The cilia beatand push the mucus away from the lungs towards the throat

36
Q

describe the process of inhalation

A
37
Q

describe the process of exhalation

A
38
Q

Air exchanges that take place in the ………….

A

Air exchanges that take place in the alveoli

39
Q

what can you use to test for CO2 in Exhaled Air?

A

Using Limewater to Test for CO2 in Exhaled Air

40
Q

explain the reasons for Differences in Inhaled & Exhaled Air

A
41
Q

After the excercise how can the lactic acid be removed ?

A

by combining it with oxygen - this is known as ‘repaying the oxygen debt’

42
Q

what is the function of the cartilage ?

A

The function of the cartilage is to support the airways and keep them open during breathing

43
Q

label the following diagram

A
44
Q

fill in the table

A
45
Q

less energy is released when glucose is broken down anaerobically

true or false

A

true

46
Q

Carbon dioxide is NOT one of the products made in anaerobic respiration in animals – it is made in aerobic respiration only

true or false

A

true

47
Q

write the equation of aerobic respiration

A

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

48
Q

What is the equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast ?

A

glucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide + some energy

49
Q

What is the equation for anaerobic respiration ?

A

glucose —-> lactate + some energy

50
Q

the volume of oxygen that is needed to completely oxidise the lactate built up during a period of anaerobic respiration

A

oxygen dept

51
Q

what is the funciton of mitochondria?

A

aerobic respiration

52
Q

what is the function of amylase enzyme?

A

breaks down starch into the sugar maltose

53
Q

stem cells have the ability to divide many times by mitosis

true or false

A

true

54
Q

label the structure of yeast cell

A
55
Q

label the following diagram

A
56
Q

label the following diagram

A
57
Q

label the following diagram

A
58
Q

label the following diagram

A
59
Q

mass of water (g) x 4.2 x temperature increase (°C)) ÷ (mass of food (g))

true

false

A

true

60
Q

peristalsis

A

waves of muscular contractio that push food along the alimentary canal

61
Q

The Stages of Food Breakdown

A

The Stages of Food Breakdown

Food taken into the body goes through 5 different stages during its passage through the alimentary canal (the gut):

Ingestion - the taking in of substances, e.g. food and drink, into the body through the mouth

Mechanical digestion - the breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical change to the food molecules

Chemical digestion - the breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules

Absorption - the movement of small food molecules and ions through the wall of the intestine into the blood

Assimilation - the movement of digested food molecules into the cells of the body where they are used, becoming part of the cells

Egestion - the passing out of food that has not been digested or absorbed (as faeces) through the anus

62
Q

describe the steps of peristalsis

A
63
Q

what is the role of

Amylasento maltose

Maltase

A

Amylase is made in the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine

Amylase breaks down starch into maltose

Maltase then breaks down maltose into glucose

64
Q

what is proteases?

what is pepsin?

A

Proteases are a group of enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids

Pepsin is an enzyme made in the stomach which breaks down proteins into smaller polypeptide chains

Proteases made in the pancreas and small intestine break the peptides into amino acids

65
Q

what is the Lipases?

A

Lipases are enzymes that break down lipids (fats) to glycerol and fatty acids

Lipase enzymes are produced in the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine

66
Q

what is the role of Bile?

A

Bile is an alkaline substance produced by cells in the liver

Before being released into the small intestine bile is stored in the gallbladder

the rolse is :

Neutralising the hydrochloric acid from the stomach

Breaking apart large drops of fat into smaller ones known as emulsification

67
Q

emulsification is a mechanical / chemical digestion?

A

mechanical

68
Q

Adaptations of the Small Intestine

A

Adaptations of the Small Intestine

The small intestine has a highly folded surface with millions of villi

These adaptations increase the surface area of the small intestine, allowing absorption to take place faster and more efficiently

Peristalsis helps by mixing together food and enzymes and by keeping things moving along the alimentary canal

Villi have A large surface area

A short diffusion distance

The wall of a villus is only one cell thick

A steep concentration gradient

supplied with a network of blood capillaries that transport glucose and amino acids away from the small intestine in the blood

Enzymes produced in the walls of the villi assist with chemical digestion

The movement of villi helps to move food along and mix it with the enzymes present

69
Q

label the diagram

A
70
Q

answer the question

A
71
Q

answer the question

A

X cell body

Y = Myelin Sheath

Neurone B ( Sensory Neurone)

Neurone A ( relay Neurone )

72
Q

Ultrafiltration and selective reabsorption are processes that take place in the kidneys. Give three ways in which ultrafiltration differs from selective reabsorption.

A

location; (Bowman’s capsule / glomerulus) pressure used; no energy/ATP required / no active transport; molecules out of blood / into nephron / eq; depends on molecule size / eq; hormones not involved;

73
Q

Damage to the pituitary gland can prevent the secretion of the hormone ADH. Explain how this affects osmoregulation by the kidney.

A

(less) water reabsorbed; collecting duct; ref permeability; more loss of water / more water in urine / more urine / dilute urine / dehydration / blood concentration increases;

74
Q

answer the question

A

surface area (of alveoli) reduced / smaller alveoli; less oxygen (into blood/body); I gas exchange respiration;

75
Q

answer the questions

A
76
Q

answer the questions

A
77
Q

what the function of placenta?

A

oxygen; glucose / nutrients / food / eq; carbon dioxide / waste ONCE; urea / waste; Allow avoid mixing blood;

78
Q

) The carbon in plants can be released into the air as carbon dioxide. Give two ways by which this can happen.

A

espiration; decomposition / decay / rotting / eq; combustion / burning;

79
Q

What effect does changing the temperature from 5 °C to 45 °C have on the rate of photosynthesis? Explain this effect.

Effect———-

Explanation———-

A

no effect / stays low / stays level / eq; light limiting / not enough light / needs light / eq

80
Q

What effect does changing the temperature from 35 °C to 50 °C have on the rate of photosynthesis? Explain these effects

A

increases / eq; molecular movement / KE / eq; levels / eq; carbon dioxide limiting / chlorophyll molecules limiting; decreases / eq; enzymes denature / eq;

81
Q

answer the questions

A

15(c)(i) sensory / afferent;

15(c)(ii) synapse;

15(c)(iii) arrow towards muscle;

82
Q

tissue in the middle of the spinal cord and outer part of the brain consist mainly of nerve cell bodies

A. White Matter

B. Grey Matter

C. Synapse

D. ventral root

A

B. Grey Matter

83
Q

tissue in the piter part of the spinal cord and inner part of the brain consist mainly of myelin sheath

A. White Matter

B. Grey Matter

C. Synapse

D. ventral root

A

A. White Matter