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Flashcards in endo anatomy Deck (66):
1

what are the borders of the pelvic cavity?

Superior: pelvic brim and peritoneum
Anterior: pubic bones
Posterior: sacrum and piriformis muscle
Lateral: ischium, obturator internus muscle and fascia
Inferior: muscular pelvic diaphragm (pubococcygeus, puborectalis, iliococcygeus, (ischio)coccygeus); pelvic outlet

2

what structures are considered subperitoneal?

Both Sexes: Ureters; Urinary bladder; Urethra; Rectum
Males: Vas deferens, Prostate, Seminal vesicles, Prostatic urethra
Females: Uterus and Uterine (Fallopian) tubes, Ovaries, Vagina

3

what are the borders of the pelvic inlet? (pelvic brim)

Boundaries:
Sacral promontory
Sacral alae
Linea terminalis (3 parts)
Sup. pubic symphysis

Separates the true and false pelvis
true below false above

4

pelvic outlet boundaries?

Boundaries:
Inf. Pubic symphysis
Ischiopubic rami
Ischial tuberosities
Sacrotuberous ligs.
Coccyx

5

what is the inferior border of the greater sciatic foramen and the posterior medial border?

the sacrospinous ligament in inferior border sacrotuberous ligament forms posterior medial border

6

what is the inferior border of the lesser sciatic foramen?

sacrotuberous ligament

7

what is the superior posterior part of the SI joint? what is the anterior part of the SI joint

superior posterior is classified as sydesmosis while the anterior portion is synovial

8

what ligament is most important in preventing excessive nutation of the the sacraum

the sacrospinous ligament

9

what type of cartilage is in the pubic symphisis

fibrocartilidge

10

what fibers does relaxin act on?

during pregnancy relaxin acts on collagen fibers of pubic ligaments to relax them

11

where does fluid pool when you have acites in the abdominal cavity for males?

In males, the rectovesical pouch is the most inferior space for fluids to collect in the peritoneal cavity

12

where does fluid pool in females when you have ascites of the abdominal cavity?

In females, the rectouterine pouch is the most inferior space for fluids to collect in the peritoneal cavity

13

The lateral ligament of the bladder contains what vessels?

Contains superior vesical a. & v.

14

Cardinal/ transverse cervical lig.

containing uterine a. & v.
(Rectovesical septum in males
containing inferior vesical a. & v.)

15

Hypogastric sheath

containing internal iliac a. & v.

16

Lateral lig. of rectum

containing middle rectal a. & v. & rectal n plexus

17

contents of the deep perineal pouch M and F

M:Anterior extension of ischioanal fat pads, external urethral sphincter, part of urethra, bulbourethral glands, Dorsal n. of the penis
Internal pudendal a.
Deep transverse perineal m.

F:Anterior extension of ischioanal fat pads, sphincter urethrae muscle, part of urethra, Dorsal n. of the clitoris
Internal pudendal a.
Deep transverse perineal m.

18

contents of the superficial perineal pouch M and F

borders are in between perineal membrane and colles fascia (superficial perineal fascia)
M:Crus of the penis, Ischiocavnosus muscle, Bulb of the penis, Bulbospongiosus m., Proximal part of spongy urethra



F: crus of the clitoris, Ischiocavnosus muscle, Bulb of the vestibule, Bulbospongiosus m.,Greater vestibular glands
Clitoris

19

the perineal body serves as an insertion point for which muscles?

common insertion for bulbospongiosus m., superficial & deep transverse perineal m., & external anal sphincter

20

how would an infection spread from one deep pineal pouch laterally to the other deep perineal pouch?

The deep perineal pouch is NOT continuous bilaterally due to presence of the perineal body and external genitalia
However: The ischioanal fossae DO communicate via
the deep postanal space

21

In males the urethra traveling through the penis is imbedded into what muscle layer?

corpus spongiosum (bulb of the penis)

22

what muscle forms the crus of the penis?

corpus cavernosum

23

what forms the glans of the clitoris?

corpus spongiosum

24

what forms the body of the clitoris?

corpus cavernosum

25

what fascia makes up the suspensory ligament of the penis?

deep urogenital fascia

26

what are the borders of the Ischioanal fossa and contents?

Levator ani with superior and inferior fascia
Obturator internus and obturator fascia
Superficial fascia
contents: Pudendal (Alcock’s) canal with internal pudendal a. & v.; pudendal n.

27

A patient has problems with their anorectal flexure this is most likely do to the disfunction of what muscle?

the anorectal flexure is maintained by the puborectalus muscle which helps control bowel movements

28

a patient has pain above the pectinate line this would be classified as what kind of pain?

visceral pain dull

29

pain below the pectinate line would be classified as what kind of pain?

somatic pain sharp

30

The internal venous plexus lies above or below the pectinate line?

above

31

the external venous plexus lies above or below the pectinate line

below

32

how doe the epithelium change at the anocutaneous line?

epithelium goes from stratified squamous above to keratinized skin cells below

33

branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac A.

1ST branch is iliolumbar A, then lateral sacral A, then superior gluteal A

34

branches of the anterior division of the internal iliac a.

Umbilical A. which gives off superior vesicle A, then Obturator A., then uterine A and vaginal A (females only), inferior vesicle A, middle rectal A, internal pudendal A, inferior gluteal A.

35

the iliolumbar A anastomoses with what A?

deep circumflex iliac A

36

Uterine A anastomoses with what a?

ovarian A

37

A. of the ductus defrons anastomoses with what A?

testicular A

38

middle/inferior rectal a anastomose with what

superior rectal A

39

inferior gluteal A anastomoses with?

deep femoral branches

40

lateral sacral a anastomoses with?

median sacral A

41

internal pudendal A branches and route

gives off inferior rectal A, then the perineal A which travels inferior (superficial) to the perineal membrane in the superficial perineal pouch and terminates as the posterior scrotal a, the internal pudendal artery then travels deep (superior) to the perineal membrane in the deep perineal pouch where it pierces the membrane to give off the dorsal A of the penis and deep artery of the penis in males and the dorsal clitoral and deep clitoral a in femals,

42

external pudendal A is a branch of? and terminates as?

branches off of femoral A and terminates as the anterior scrotal A

43

superior rectal vein drainage path?

drains into IMV which drains into the splenic v which drains into portal v.

44

middle and inferior rectal v drainage path?

internal iliac v then common iliac then IVC

45

where are there portal caval anastomoses?

the internal and external rectal venous plexuses

46

internal hemorrhoids pathology?

result from dilated veins of the internal rectal venous plexus not painful because visceral pain above the pectineal line, can prolapse through anal sphincter

47

external hemorrhoids pathology?

dilated veins of external rectal venous plexus, typically painful because somatic pain below pectineal line

48

most superior node of the deep inguinal nodes is called?

node of cloquet

49

lymph drainage from the Common iliac nodes; gonads
Females: ovaries; uterine tube; part of uterus near uterine tube Males: testis; epididymis drains where?

lumbar nodes

50

Superior-most rectum & sigmoid colon lymph drainage

Inferior Mesenteric nodes

51

Posteroinferior structures: Inferior rectum; inferior vagina [F] lymph drainage

sacral nodes

52

Internal and External iliac lymph nodes drain where

common iliac node

53

Inferior pelvic structures (base of bladder; inferior pelvic ureter; urethra; inferior rectum)
Females: superior vagina; cervix; inferior uterus
Males: prostate and prostatic urethra, seminal vesicles
lymph drainage

internal iliac nodes

54

Inguinal nodes; Anterosuperior pelvic structures (superior bladder, sup. pelvic ureter, sup. uterus [F]) lymph drainage

external iliac nodes

55

Glans clitoris and glans penis [M]; distal spongy urethra [M] lymph drainage

deep inguinal

56

Lower limb; superficial structures of perineum including skin, external genitalia and inferior anal canal lymph drainage

superficial inguinal nodes

57

IMPORTANT what exits the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis

Inf. gluteal n., a., v.
- Sciatic n.
- Pudendal n.
- Int. pudendal a,v
- Post. fem. cut. n
- N. to obturator int.
- N. to quad. femoris

58

IMPORTANT what exits the greater sciatic foramen above the pirformis

Sup. gluteal n., a., & v.

59

what exits the lesser sciatic foramen?

obteratur internus muscle

60

what exits the obturator foramen?

Obturator N. and A

61

route of the pudendal n into the perinium and chord levels?

the pudendal N S2-S4 goes from the sacral plexus through the greater sciatic foramen then loops into the lesser sciatic foramen and enters the perinium

62

branches of the pudendal N.

first branch is the inferior anal N, then it gives off deep and superficial perineal n, the superficial perineal n becomes the posterior scrotal n, and finally gives off dorsal n of the penis

63

where is the deep perineal N located

in the superficial perineal pouch

64

what nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin between the anus and coccyx

the anal coccygeal n from the coccygeal plexus

65

what measurement has the smallest diameter adn is most concerning regarding the birth canal?

the interspinous diameter around 10 cm
pelvic inlet is transversely wide while pelvic outlet is a-p wide

66

what passes through the urogenital hiatus?

deep dorsal vein of penis/clitoris