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HUMAN BIOLOGY ATAR YEAR 12 > Endocrine and nervous > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine and nervous Deck (51):
1

NERVE IMPULSES

NERVE TRANSMISSION

- Sodium and potassium cause weak electrical charge across the membrane of the neurone (resting potential), the membrane is said to be polarised.
- When the neurone is stimulated the action of the sodium and potassium in the membrane pump is interrupted.
-This changes the permeability of the membrane. That allows the sodium to flood into the cell and the potassium to leak out.
- This reverse electrical charge across the membrane (action potential) - t=he cell membrane is said to be depolarised.
- depolarisation down nerve fibre in small steps - nerve impulses as soon as the nerve impulses pass, membrane pumps are re-activated and resting potential restored.
- myelinated fibres impulses jumps from node to node - saltatory conduction

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NERVE IMPULSES

MYELINATED / UN-MYELINATED

- Myelinated neurones - have myelin sheath and use saltatory conduction
- Myelin - white phospholipid covering around an axon
- Nodes of Ranvier - in the myelin covering
- Saltatory conduction - allows for faster conduction of a nerve impulse because impulses jump from node to node
- Unmyelinated neurons - do not have the myelin sheath and use continuous conduction
- Continuous conduction - slower conduction of the nerve impulse because it must travel down the entire length of the neurone

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REFLEX ARC

- A reflex action is an automatic response to a stimulus
- A reflex arc describes the pathway of an electrical impulse in response to a stimulus;
- A relay neurone are found in the spinal cord, connecting sensory neurone to motor neurone;
- Neurone do not connect directly with each other: there is a gap called a synapse.
- The sequence of events is - stimulus (pain point) - receptors (pain receptors skin) - coordinators (spinal cord) - effector (muscle) - response (contraction of muscle)

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RECEPTORS

NEURONE

a basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system

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RECEPTORS

MULTIPOLAR

- one axon
- multiple dendrites extending from cell body
- most common, in brain and spinal cord
- motor neurones

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RECEPTORS

BIPOLAR

- one axon
- one dendrite
- branches at both ends
- occur in eye, ears, nose
- take impulses from receptors to other neurone

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RECEPTORS

UNIPOLAR

- one extension, and axon
- cell body to one side of the axon
- sensory neurones, bring impulse to spine

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BRAIN

CEREBRUM

- balance
- posture
- cardiac, respiratory , and vasomotor centres

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BRAIN

CORPUS CALLOSUM

communication between the left and right side of the brain

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BRAIN

HYPOTHALAMUS

- Moods and motivation
- Sexual maturation
- Temperature regulation
- Hormonal body processes

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BRAIN

PITURITY GLAND

- Hormonal body processes
- Physical maturation
- Growth (height and form)
- Sexual maturation
- Sexual functioning

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BRAIN

MEDULLA OBLONGATA

- Controls heartbeat and breathing

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BRAIN

CEREBELLUM

- Balance
- Posture
- Cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor centres

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BRAIN

BRAIN STEM

- Motor and sensory pathway to body and face
- Vital centers: cardiac, respiratory, vasomotor

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BRAIN

HIPPOCAMPUS

Memory

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BRAIN

THALAMUS

Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex

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BRAIN

PONS

relays information between the cerebrum and the cerebellum, controls arousal and regulates respiration

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BRAIN

CEREBRAL CORTEX

- outermost layer of the cerebral hemisphere that is grey matter.
- Cortices are asymmetrical.
- Both hemispheres are able to analyse sensory data, perform memory functions, learn new information, form thoughts and make decisions.

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NEROUS SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

- BRAIN received and processes sensory info, response, stores memories, generates thoughts
- SPINAL CORD conducts signals to and from the brain, control relfex

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

- outside of the body, sensory receptors

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

MOTOR AND SENSORY NEURONES

MOTOR - CNS to muscles to glands
SENSORY - sensory organs to CNS

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

controls voluntary movements

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

- Involuntary
- Maintains homeostatic balance
- Carries nerve impulses to involuntary glands and internal organs
- Sympathetic (fight/flight) or parasympathetic (normal body functioning)
- Consists of 2 neurones from efferent chain (pre/post ganglionic neurones)

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

- enables the body's response to stress - take out if homeostatic balance
- Arise with spinal nerves in the lumbar and thoracic regions of the spine
- Neurotransmitter is Noradrenaline

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

PARASYMPETHEIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

- involved with normal body functioning (maintain homeostatic balance)
- Arise with cranial nerves from the brain and spinal nerves in sacral region of the spine. (Cranio-sacral out flow)
- Neurotransmitter is Acetylcholine (ACH)

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

FOLLICLE-STIMULATING (FSH)

- Target organ - ovaries (female), testes (males)
- main effect - follicle growth (female), sperm production (male)

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

LUTEINISING (LH)

- TO - ovaries (female), testes (male)
- ME - ovulation and uterus maintenance ( female), testosterone secretion (male)

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

GROWTH HORMONE (GH)

- TO - All cells
- ME - growth and protein synthesist

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

THYROID-STIMULATING (TSH)

- TO - thyroid gland
- ME - secretion of hormone from the thyroid

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC (ACTH)

- TO - adrenal gland
- ME - secretion of hormone from adrenal cortex

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ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Pituitary Gland - Anterier Lobe

PROLACTIN (PRL)

- TO - mammary glands
- ME - milk production

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Antidiuretic (ADH)


- TO - kidneys
- ME - reabsorption of water

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Oxytocin (OT)


- TO - uterus and mammary glands
- ME - contractions of uterus dusting birth, erase of milt in mammary gland

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Thyroxin


- Gland - Thyroid
- Target cell - most cells
- Main effect - increase metabolic rate & oxygen consumption & heat production

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Parathyroid hormone


- G - parathyroid
- TC - bones and kidneys
- ME - increase level of calcium in blood

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Thymosin


- G - thymus
- TC - t lymphocytes
- ME - stimulates development & maturation of t lymphocytes

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Aldosterone


- G - Adrenal cortex
- TC - kidney
- ME - increase reabsorption of sodium ions and excretion of potassium ion

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Cortisol


- G - adrenal cortex
- TC - most cells
- ME - promotes normal metabolism, helps body deal with stress, repair damage of tissue

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Adrenaline & noradrenaline

- G - adrenal medulla
- TC - most tissues
- ME - prepares the body for flight/fight, reinforces the effect of SNS

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Insulin


- G - pancreas
- TC - most cells
- ME - stimulates uptake of glucose, lowers blood sugar levels

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Glycogen


- G - pancreas
- TC - liver and fat storage tissue
- ME - stimulates breakdown of glycogen and fat, increase BSL

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Androgens


- G - testes
- TC - many tissue
- ME - sperm production, growth of skeleton and muscles, male sex characteristic

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Oestrogen


- G - ovaries
- TC - many tissue
- ME - menstrual cycle, sex characteristic

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ENDOCRINE GLAND
Posterior Lobe of pituitary gland

Progesterone


- G - ovaries
- TC - untrue sand mammary gland
- ME - menstrual cycle & pregnancy, prepares for lactation (breast milk)

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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Nature of message


NS - Electrical impulses and neurotransmitters
ES - hormones


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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Transport of messages


NS - along the membrane of neurones
ES - by the blood stream

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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Cells affected


NS - muscle and glands; other neurones
ES - all body cells

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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Type of response


NS - usually local and specific
ES - may be very general and widespread

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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Time Taken to respond


NS - rapid - within millisecond
ES - slower - from seconds to day


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COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ADN ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Duration of response


NS - brief - stops quickly when the stimulus stops
ES - longer lasting - may continue long after stimulus has stopped

51

NERVOUS SYSTEM

- place where incoming messages are processed and where outgoing messages to the PNS are sent
- Nerves make up the PNS
- PROTECTION - bone (brain), membrane called menininges (protective covering if all CNS) a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(shock absorber)
- splits into the CNS, PNS, SNS, ANS, Sympathetic/ parasymathetic